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Article

Diversity in the Circulation of Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses in the Northern Hemisphere in the 2018–19 Season

1
The Israel Center for Disease Control, Israel Ministry of Health, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat-Gan 52621, Israel
2
Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Ramat-Gan 52621, Israel
3
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel
4
Worldwide Influenza Center, The Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, UK
5
School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Andrew Pekosz
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040375
Received: 23 January 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
While vaccination is considered the most effective means to prevent influenza infection, its seasonal effectiveness varies, depending on the circulating influenza strains. Here, we characterized the circulation of influenza strains in October-2018 and March-2019 around the world. For this, we used nasopharyngeal samples collected from outpatient and hospitalized patients in Israel and data reported in ECDC, CDC, and WHO databases. Influenza A(H3N2) was dominant in Israel, while in Europe, Asia, and USA, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated first, and then the A(H3N2) virus also appeared. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A(H3N2) viruses circulating in Israel belonged to clade-3C.3a, while in Europe, Asia, and USA, A(H3N2) viruses belonged to subclade-3C.2a1, but were later replaced by clade-3C.3a viruses in USA. The vaccine A(H3N2) components of that year, A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016-(H3N2)-like-viruses, belonged to clade-3C.2a1. The circulation of different influenza subtypes and clades of A(H3N2) viruses in a single season highlights the need for universal influenza vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza A; circulation; clade; vaccine influenza A; circulation; clade; vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pando, R.; Stern, S.; Nemet, I.; Glatman-Freedman, A.; Sefty, H.; Zuckerman, N.S.; Drori, Y.; Friedman, N.; McCauley, J.W.; Keinan-Boker, L.; Mendelson, E.; Daniels, R.S.; Mandelboim, M. Diversity in the Circulation of Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses in the Northern Hemisphere in the 2018–19 Season. Vaccines 2021, 9, 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040375

AMA Style

Pando R, Stern S, Nemet I, Glatman-Freedman A, Sefty H, Zuckerman NS, Drori Y, Friedman N, McCauley JW, Keinan-Boker L, Mendelson E, Daniels RS, Mandelboim M. Diversity in the Circulation of Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses in the Northern Hemisphere in the 2018–19 Season. Vaccines. 2021; 9(4):375. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040375

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pando, Rakefet, Shahar Stern, Ital Nemet, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Hanna Sefty, Neta S. Zuckerman, Yaron Drori, Nehemya Friedman, John W. McCauley, Lital Keinan-Boker, Ella Mendelson, Rodney S. Daniels, and Michal Mandelboim. 2021. "Diversity in the Circulation of Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses in the Northern Hemisphere in the 2018–19 Season" Vaccines 9, no. 4: 375. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040375

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