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Enterovirus A71 Vaccines

Correlates of Vaccine-Induced Protection against SARS-CoV-2

by 1,2,3, 1,4,5,6, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,† and 1,2,3,*,†
Division of Infectious Diseases, 1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
Department for Clinical Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
Excellence Centre for Medical Mycology (ECMM), 1st Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Translational Research, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, 50937 Cologne, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Francisco Sobrino
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 238;
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity)
We are in the midst of a pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than two million deaths after one year of the pandemic. The world is experiencing a deep economic recession. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to prevent further morbidity and mortality. Vaccine candidates against COVID-19 have been developed at an unprecedented speed, with more than 200 vaccine candidates currently under investigation. Among those, 20 candidates have entered the clinical Phase 3 to evaluate efficacy, and three have been approved by the European Medicines Agency. The aim of immunization is to act against infection, disease and/or transmission. However, the measurement of vaccine efficacy is challenging, as efficacy trials need to include large cohorts with verum and placebo cohorts. In the future, this will be even more challenging as further vaccine candidates will receive approval, an increasing number of humans will receive vaccinations and incidence might decrease. To evaluate novel and second-generation vaccine candidates, randomized placebo-controlled trials might not be appropriate anymore. Correlates of protection (CoP) could be an important tool to evaluate novel vaccine candidates, but vaccine-induced CoP have not been clearly defined for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this review, we report on immunogenicity against natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccine-induced immune responses and discuss immunological markers that can be linked to protection. By discussing the immunogenicity and efficacy of forerunner vaccines, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of possible efficacy measures and CoP. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; correlates of protection; immunogenicity; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; pandemic COVID-19; correlates of protection; immunogenicity; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; pandemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, T.; Mellinghoff, S.C.; Shamsrizi, P.; Addo, M.M.; Dahlke, C. Correlates of Vaccine-Induced Protection against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines 2021, 9, 238.

AMA Style

Koch T, Mellinghoff SC, Shamsrizi P, Addo MM, Dahlke C. Correlates of Vaccine-Induced Protection against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines. 2021; 9(3):238.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koch, Till, Sibylle C. Mellinghoff, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Marylyn M. Addo, and Christine Dahlke. 2021. "Correlates of Vaccine-Induced Protection against SARS-CoV-2" Vaccines 9, no. 3: 238.

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