Vaccine Procurement: A Conceptual Framework Based on Literature Review
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Research Design
2.2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
2.3. Data Extraction and Reporting
3.1. Conceptual Framework for Vaccine Procurement
3.2. Relevant Definitions of Procurement Methods and Purchase Mechanisms
- Direct (or self) procurement: countries are autonomous in their decisions and do not have to comply with WHO prequalification requisites. Three different main purchase mechanisms are used, depending on the country size, needs/shortages, and bargaining power: competitive bidding, request for quotation, and sole-source procurement. Competitive bidding is a “procurement process in which clearly stated product specifications and contract requirements are issued to multiple suppliers to solicit pricing and performance responses”; request for quotation is a process where “offers (quotations) are requested from several prospective suppliers without employing formal sealed bidding procedures”; sole source procurement refers to “purchasing from a single manufacturer without competition among potential suppliers”.
- Pooled (or centralized) procurement: refers to a mechanism by which several countries (buyers) combine into a single entity that purchases vaccines on their behalf. The WHO has identified four levels of pooled procurement : in level 1 (information sharing and individual informed buying), procurement is conducted by each country, but information about suppliers and products is shared. Benchmarks and best practices are identified. In level 2 (coordinated informed buying), procurement is conducted by each country. Market research is jointly performed. Supplier performance and prices are monitored via shared information, which may also involve the national political level. In level 3 (group contracting), procurement is conducted individually. Still, vaccines are prequalified, prices set, suppliers selected, and products purchased by the process of joint actions and negotiations. In this context, legal framework, procedures, and policies need to be completely harmonized. Group contracting is a useful example of economies of scale. Lastly, in level 4 (central contracting), tendering, awarding contracts and delivery are coordinated by a single representative organization, which can also implement supplementary technical and functional roles. Centralized procurement is traditionally performed within supranational entities (e.g., PAHO) , while decentralized procurement “occurs when administrative responsibility, authority, and discretion are delegated to service and sub-service delivery personnel” .
3.3. Quality and Safety of Vaccines (including Prequalification)
3.4. Forecasting and Budgeting
3.5. Procurement Legislation
3.6. Financial Sustainability for Both, Countries and Manufacturers (including Plurality of Manufacturers and Domestic Production)
3.8. Investment in Training, Storage and Service Delivery
3.9. Monitoring and Evaluation
3.10. Vaccine Shortages
Limits and Strengths
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Gianfredi, V.; Filia, A.; Rota, M.C.; Croci, R.; Bellini, L.; Odone, A.; Signorelli, C. Vaccine Procurement: A Conceptual Framework Based on Literature Review. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121434
Gianfredi V, Filia A, Rota MC, Croci R, Bellini L, Odone A, Signorelli C. Vaccine Procurement: A Conceptual Framework Based on Literature Review. Vaccines. 2021; 9(12):1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121434Chicago/Turabian Style
Gianfredi, Vincenza, Antonietta Filia, Maria Cristina Rota, Roberto Croci, Lorenzo Bellini, Anna Odone, and Carlo Signorelli. 2021. "Vaccine Procurement: A Conceptual Framework Based on Literature Review" Vaccines 9, no. 12: 1434. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121434