Next Article in Journal
Questionnaire Survey of Possible Association of Allergic Diseases with Adverse Reactions to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination
Next Article in Special Issue
A Global Study on the Correlates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution
Previous Article in Journal
Comirnaty-Elicited and Convalescent Sera Recognize Different Spike Epitopes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination: Focus on the Italian Situation
Review

The Importance of Nanocarrier Design and Composition for an Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Transdermal Vaccination

1
Departamento de Farmacia, Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
2
Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
3
Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins No. 340, Santiago 7810000, Chile
4
Departamento de Endocrinología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7810000, Chile
5
Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Farmacia, Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
6
Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados “CIEN-UC”, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7810000, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ângela Maria Almeida de Sousa, Christiane Pienna Soares and Aldo Venuti
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121420
Received: 1 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 1 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against Infectious Diseases and Cancer)
The World Health Organization estimates that the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus claimed more than 3 million lives in 2020 alone. This situation has highlighted the importance of vaccination programs and the urgency of working on new technologies that allow an efficient, safe, and effective immunization. From this perspective, nanomedicine has provided novel tools for the design of the new generation of vaccines. Among the challenges of the new vaccine generations is the search for alternative routes of antigen delivery due to costs, risks, need for trained personnel, and low acceptance in the population associated with the parenteral route. Along these lines, transdermal immunization has been raised as a promising alternative for antigen delivery and vaccination based on a large absorption surface and an abundance of immune system cells. These features contribute to a high barrier capacity and high immunological efficiency for transdermal immunization. However, the stratum corneum barrier constitutes a significant challenge for generating new pharmaceutical forms for transdermal antigen delivery. This review addresses the biological bases for transdermal immunomodulation and the technological advances in the field of nanomedicine, from the passage of antigens facilitated by devices to cross the stratum corneum, to the design of nanosystems, with an emphasis on the importance of design and composition towards the new generation of needle-free nanometric transdermal systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: transdermal vaccines; needle-free immunization; nanomedicine; nanoparticle design; nano vaccines transdermal vaccines; needle-free immunization; nanomedicine; nanoparticle design; nano vaccines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Valdivia-Olivares, R.Y.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Álvarez-Figueroa, M.J.; Kalergis, A.M.; González-Aramundiz, J.V. The Importance of Nanocarrier Design and Composition for an Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Transdermal Vaccination. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121420

AMA Style

Valdivia-Olivares RY, Rodriguez-Fernandez M, Álvarez-Figueroa MJ, Kalergis AM, González-Aramundiz JV. The Importance of Nanocarrier Design and Composition for an Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Transdermal Vaccination. Vaccines. 2021; 9(12):1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Valdivia-Olivares, Rayen Y., Maria Rodriguez-Fernandez, María J. Álvarez-Figueroa, Alexis M. Kalergis, and José V. González-Aramundiz. 2021. "The Importance of Nanocarrier Design and Composition for an Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Transdermal Vaccination" Vaccines 9, no. 12: 1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121420

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop