Next Article in Journal
Flexible RSV Prefusogenic Fusion Glycoprotein Exposes Multiple Neutralizing Epitopes that May Collectively Contribute to Protective Immunity
Previous Article in Journal
Probiotic Lactobacilli Limit Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 Replication in Chicken Cecal Tonsil Mononuclear Cells
Open AccessReview

Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS “Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria”, Negrar di Valpolicella, 37024 Verona, Italy
3
Italian Society of Travel and Migration Medicine (SIMVIM), 00185 Rome, Italy
4
Local Health Unit, Department of Prevention, 89121 Reggio Calabria, Italy
5
Head of Health and Occupational Medicine Saipem SpA, 20097 Milan, Italy
6
Department of Medical Affairs Europe, Emergent BioSolutions, 1455 Madrid, Spain
7
Postgraduate School of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 1 October 2020 / Accepted: 7 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
Cholera is endemic in approximately 50 countries, primarily in Africa and South and Southeast Asia, and in these areas, it remains a disease associated with poverty. In developed nations, cholera is rare, and cases are typically imported from endemic areas by returning travellers. Cholera is readily preventable with the tools available to modern medicine. In developing nations, cholera transmission can be prevented through improved water, sanitation, and hygiene services and the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). For travellers, risk can be mitigated by practicing regular hand hygiene and consuming food and water from safe sources. OCVs should be considered for high-risk travellers likely to be exposed to cholera patients or contaminated water and food. There are currently three World Health Organization pre-qualified OCVs, which are based on killed whole-cell strains of Vibrio cholerae. These established vaccines offer significant protection in adults and children for up to 2 years. A novel live attenuated vaccine that provides rapid-onset protection in adults and children is licensed in the USA and Europe only. Live attenuated OCVs may mimic the natural infection of V. cholerae more closely, generating rapid immune responses without the need for repeat dosing. These potential benefits have prompted the ongoing development of several additional live attenuated vaccines. The objective of this article is to provide a general review of the current landscape of OCVs, including a discussion of their appropriate use in international travellers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholera; cholera prevention; vaccines; oral cholera vaccine cholera; cholera prevention; vaccines; oral cholera vaccine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gabutti, G.; Rossanese, A.; Tomasi, A.; Giuffrida, S.; Nicosia, V.; Barriga, J.; Florescu, C.; Sandri, F.; Stefanati, A. Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers. Vaccines 2020, 8, 606. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606

AMA Style

Gabutti G, Rossanese A, Tomasi A, Giuffrida S, Nicosia V, Barriga J, Florescu C, Sandri F, Stefanati A. Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers. Vaccines. 2020; 8(4):606. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gabutti, Giovanni; Rossanese, Andrea; Tomasi, Alberto; Giuffrida, Sandro; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Barriga, Juan; Florescu, Caterina; Sandri, Federica; Stefanati, Armando. 2020. "Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers" Vaccines 8, no. 4: 606. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop