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Open AccessArticle

Relationship between Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate and COVID-19 Outbreak: An Italian Ecological Study

1
Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, 20138 Milan, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20129 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030535
Received: 19 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
Background: The lack of specific vaccines or drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants studies focusing on alternative clinical approaches to reduce the spread of this pandemic disease. In this study, we investigated whether anti-influenza vaccination plays a role in minimizing the diffusion of COVID-19 in the Italian population aged 65 and over. Methods: Four COVID-19 outcomes were used: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence, hospitalizations for COVID-19 symptoms, admissions to intensive care units for reasons related to SARS-CoV-2, and deaths attributable to COVID-19. Results: At univariate analyses, the influenza vaccination coverage rates correlated negatively with all COVID-19 outcomes (Beta ranging from −134 to −0.61; all p < 0.01). At multivariable analyses, influenza vaccination coverage rates correlated independently with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence (Beta (95% C.I.): −130 (−198, −62); p = 0.001), hospitalizations for COVID-19 symptoms (Beta (95% C.I.): −4.16 (−6.27, −2.05); p = 0.001), admission to intensive care units for reasons related to SARS-CoV-2 (Beta (95% C.I.): −0.58 (−1.05, −0.12); p = 0.017), and number of deaths attributable to COVID-19 (Beta (95% C.I.): −3.29 (−5.66, −0.93); p = 0.010). The R2 observed in the unadjusted analysis increased from 82% to 159% for all the considered outcomes after multivariable analyses. Conclusions: In the Italian population, the coverage rate of the influenza vaccination in people aged 65 and over is associated with a reduced spread and a less severe clinical expression of COVID-19. This finding warrants ad hoc studies to investigate the role of influenza vaccination in preventing the spread of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza vaccination coverage rate; COVID-19; coronavirus spread influenza vaccination coverage rate; COVID-19; coronavirus spread
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amato, M.; Werba, J.P.; Frigerio, B.; Coggi, D.; Sansaro, D.; Ravani, A.; Ferrante, P.; Veglia, F.; Tremoli, E.; Baldassarre, D. Relationship between Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate and COVID-19 Outbreak: An Italian Ecological Study. Vaccines 2020, 8, 535. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030535

AMA Style

Amato M, Werba JP, Frigerio B, Coggi D, Sansaro D, Ravani A, Ferrante P, Veglia F, Tremoli E, Baldassarre D. Relationship between Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate and COVID-19 Outbreak: An Italian Ecological Study. Vaccines. 2020; 8(3):535. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030535

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amato, Mauro; Werba, José P.; Frigerio, Beatrice; Coggi, Daniela; Sansaro, Daniela; Ravani, Alessio; Ferrante, Palma; Veglia, Fabrizio; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano. 2020. "Relationship between Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate and COVID-19 Outbreak: An Italian Ecological Study" Vaccines 8, no. 3: 535. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030535

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