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Vaccination Route as a Determinant of Protective Antibody Responses against Herpes Simplex Virus
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Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Vaccine Development

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu 410001, Nigeria
2
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
3
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020302
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Development for Herpes Simplex Viruses)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are among the most common viral infections and usually last for a lifetime. The virus can potentially be controlled with vaccines since humans are the only known host. However, despite the development and trial of many vaccines, this has not yet been possible. This is normally attributed to the high latency potential of the virus. Numerous immune cells, particularly the natural killer cells and interferon gamma and pathways that are used by the body to fight HSV infections have been identified. On the other hand, the virus has developed different mechanisms, including using different microRNAs to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy to avoid clearance and aid latency induction. Both traditional and new methods of vaccine development, including the use of live attenuated vaccines, replication incompetent vaccines, subunit vaccines and recombinant DNA vaccines are now being employed to develop an effective vaccine against the virus. We conclude that this review has contributed to a better understanding of the interplay between the immune system and the virus, which is necessary for the development of an effective vaccine against HSV. View Full-Text
Keywords: herpes simplex virus; immune system; immune response; vaccine herpes simplex virus; immune system; immune response; vaccine
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Ike, A.C.; Onu, C.J.; Ononugbo, C.M.; Reward, E.E.; Muo, S.O. Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Vaccine Development. Vaccines 2020, 8, 302.

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