Seasonal influenza vaccination for healthcare workers (HCWs) is critical to the protection of HCWs and their patients. This study examined whether the separation of public health workers and general practitioners could affect the influenza vaccine uptake and recommendation behaviors among HCWs in China. A survey was conducted from August to October 2019, and HCWs from 10 provinces in China were recruited. A self-administered and anonymous questionnaire was used to assess HCWs’ demographic information, knowledge, and attitudes toward influenza vaccination, as well as vaccine uptake and recommendation behaviors. The primary outcome was HCWs’ vaccination and recommendation status of seasonal influenza vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the influence factors of influenza vaccine uptake and recommendation among HCWs. Of the 1159 HCWs in this study, 25.3% were vaccinated against influenza in the previous season. “No need to get vaccinated” was the primary reason for both unvaccinated public health workers and general practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression showed that public health workers were more likely to get vaccinated against influenza (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.59–3.05) and recommend influenza vaccination to children (OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.57–2.80) and the elderly (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.26–2.25) than general practitioners. Besides, the knowledge and perceived risk of influenza can give rise to HCWs’ vaccination and recommendation behaviors, and HCWs who got vaccinated in the past year were more likely to recommend it to children and the elderly in their work. The influenza vaccine coverage and recommendation among HCWs are still relatively low in China, especially for general practitioners. Further efforts are needed to improve the knowledge and attitudes toward influenza and influenza vaccination among HCWs, and coherent training on immunization for both public health workers and general practitioners might be effective in the face of separated public health and clinical services in China.
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