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Open AccessArticle

Frequency of Adverse Events Following Q Fever Immunisation in Young Adults

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Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
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University Health Service, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
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School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
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School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
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National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3K 6R8, Canada
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Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2018, 6(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6040083
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
Q fever is a zoonosis of concern in many countries. Vaccination is the most effective means of prevention, and since 1989, Australia has had a licensed Q fever vaccine, Q-VAX®. This vaccine was also used in the Netherlands in 2011 following the largest recorded Q fever outbreak globally. There is a paucity of available data regarding adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) for young adult females. Such data are important for informing future vaccination recommendations both within Australia and internationally. This study collected Q fever vaccine (Q-VAX®) AEFI data in veterinary and animal science students at Australian universities. Students were enrolled at the time of vaccination and were emailed a link to an online AEFI survey one week later. Of the 60% (499/827) that responded, 85% were female and the median age was 18 years. Local injection site reactions (ISRs) occurred in 98% (95%; CI 96–99%) of respondents, of which 30% (95% CI 24–32%) were severe. Systemic AEFI occurred in 60% (95%; CI 55–64%) of respondents within the seven days following immunisation. Medical attention was sought by 19/499 (3.8%) respondents, of whom one sought treatment at a hospital emergency department. Females were more likely than males to experience any local ISR (odds ratio [OR] 9.3; 95% CI 2.5–33.8; p < 0.001), ISRs of greater severity (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.5–4.2; p < 0.001), and any systemic AEFI (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.1; p = 0.016). These safety data suggest that a high frequency of adverse events following immunisation should be expected in young adults, particularly females. However, the consequences of Q fever disease are potentially far more debilitating. View Full-Text
Keywords: Q fever vaccination; adverse events; Coxiella burnetii Q fever vaccination; adverse events; Coxiella burnetii
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Sellens, E.; Bosward, K.L.; Willis, S.; Heller, J.; Cobbold, R.; Comeau, J.L.; Norris, J.M.; Dhand, N.K.; Wood, N. Frequency of Adverse Events Following Q Fever Immunisation in Young Adults. Vaccines 2018, 6, 83.

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