Next Article in Journal
SupT1 Cell Infusion as a Possible Cell-Based Therapy for HIV: Results from a Pilot Study in Hu-PBMC BRGS Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Bee Venom and Its Fractions on the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in PMA-Differentiated U937 Cells Co-Stimulated with LPS
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Vaccines 2016, 4(2), 12;

Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Diane M. Harper and Katherine A. Wall
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycopeptide-based and Related Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [634 KB, uploaded 19 April 2016]   |  


The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; vaccines; liposomes; polymeric nanoparticles nanoparticles; vaccines; liposomes; polymeric nanoparticles

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vartak, A.; Sucheck, S.J. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers. Vaccines 2016, 4, 12.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top