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Review

Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Diane M. Harper and Katherine A. Wall
Vaccines 2016, 4(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines4020012
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycopeptide-based and Related Vaccines)
The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; vaccines; liposomes; polymeric nanoparticles nanoparticles; vaccines; liposomes; polymeric nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vartak, A.; Sucheck, S.J. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers. Vaccines 2016, 4, 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines4020012

AMA Style

Vartak A, Sucheck SJ. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers. Vaccines. 2016; 4(2):12. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines4020012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vartak, Abhishek, and Steven J. Sucheck. 2016. "Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers" Vaccines 4, no. 2: 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines4020012

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