Next Article in Journal
Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract
Previous Article in Journal
Integrating Immunologic Signaling Networks: The JAK/STAT Pathway in Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Vaccines 2016, 4(1), 6;

Hepatitis Vaccines

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Pediatric Liver Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, CMSC 2-125, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [2440 KB, uploaded 11 March 2016]   |  


Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E; vaccines hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E; vaccines

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ogholikhan, S.; Schwarz, K.B. Hepatitis Vaccines. Vaccines 2016, 4, 6.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top