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Vaccines 2014, 2(3), 654-685;

Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland Q4006, Australia
School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 2 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Vaccine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [938 KB, uploaded 2 September 2014]   |  


There is currently no vaccine available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminth disease, schistosomiasis. Despite many researchers working towards this goal, one of the focuses has been on identifying new antigenic targets. The bar to achieve protective efficacy in humans was set at a consistent induction of 40% protection or better by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and although this is a modest goal, it is yet to be reached with the six most promising schistosomiasis vaccine candidates (Sm28GST, IrV5, Sm14, paramyosin, TPI, and Sm23). Adjuvant selection has a large impact on the effectiveness of the vaccine, and the use of adjuvants to aid in the stimulation of the immune system is a critical step and a major variable affecting vaccine development. In addition to a comprehensive understanding of the immune system, level of protection and the desired immune response required, there is also a need for a standardised and effective adjuvant formulation. This review summarises the status of adjuvants that have been or are being employed in schistosomiasis vaccine development focusing on immunisation outcomes at preclinical and clinical stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: adjuvant; vaccine; helminth; schistosoma adjuvant; vaccine; helminth; schistosoma

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stephenson, R.; You, H.; McManus, D.P.; Toth, I. Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research. Vaccines 2014, 2, 654-685.

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