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Absence of Anti-RBD Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infected or Naive Individuals Prior to Vaccination with CoronaVac Leads to Short Protection of Only Four Months Duration

1
Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua 67030-000, PA, Brazil
2
Department of Biological and Health Sciences, University of Pará State, Belém 66087-670, PA, Brazil
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Department of Virology, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua 67030-000, PA, Brazil
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School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
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Australian Infectious Disease Research Centre, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
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The Australian Institute for Biotechnology and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Moriya Tsuji
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050690
Received: 15 February 2022 / Revised: 22 March 2022 / Accepted: 1 April 2022 / Published: 28 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Coronavirus Diseases)
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health threat facing the world today. Multiple vaccines have been approved; however, the emergence of viral variants such as the recent Omicron raises the possibility of booster doses to achieve adequate protection. In Brazil, the CoronaVac (Sinovac, Beijing, China) vaccine was used; however, it is important to assess the immune response to this vaccine over time. This study aimed to monitor the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in those immunized with CoronaVac and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Samples were collected between August 2020 and August 2021. Within the vaccinated cohort, some individuals had a history of infection by SARS-CoV-2 prior to immunization, while others did not. We analyzed RBD-specific and neutralizing-antibodies. Anti-RBD antibodies were detected in both cohorts, with a peak between 45–90 days post infection or vaccination, followed by a steady decline over time. In those with a previous history of COVID-19, a higher, longer, more persistent response was observed. This trend was mirrored in the neutralization assays, where infection, followed by immunization, resulted in higher, longer lasting responses which were conditioned on the presence of levels of RBD antibodies right before the vaccination. This supports the necessity of booster doses of CoronaVac in due course to prevent serious disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; CoronaVac; vaccines; antibodies COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; CoronaVac; vaccines; antibodies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, C.F.d.; Neto, W.F.F.; Silva, C.P.d.; Ribeiro, A.C.S.; Martins, L.C.; Sousa, A.W.d.; Freitas, M.N.O.; Chiang, J.O.; Silva, F.A.; Santos, E.B.d.; Medeiros, D.B.A.; Pinheiro, G.S.; Brandão, G.F.; Carvalho, V.L.; Azevedo, R.S.S.; Vasconcelos, P.F.C.; Costa, I.B.; Costa, I.B.; Santos, M.C.d.; Soares, L.S.; Bedran, R.L.S.; Ferreira, J.L.; Amarilla, A.A.; Modhiran, N.; McMillan, C.L.D.; Freney, M.E.; Muller, D.A.; Watterson, D.; Casseb, L.M.N.; Henriques, D.F. Absence of Anti-RBD Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infected or Naive Individuals Prior to Vaccination with CoronaVac Leads to Short Protection of Only Four Months Duration. Vaccines 2022, 10, 690. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050690

AMA Style

Oliveira CFd, Neto WFF, Silva CPd, Ribeiro ACS, Martins LC, Sousa AWd, Freitas MNO, Chiang JO, Silva FA, Santos EBd, Medeiros DBA, Pinheiro GS, Brandão GF, Carvalho VL, Azevedo RSS, Vasconcelos PFC, Costa IB, Costa IB, Santos MCd, Soares LS, Bedran RLS, Ferreira JL, Amarilla AA, Modhiran N, McMillan CLD, Freney ME, Muller DA, Watterson D, Casseb LMN, Henriques DF. Absence of Anti-RBD Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infected or Naive Individuals Prior to Vaccination with CoronaVac Leads to Short Protection of Only Four Months Duration. Vaccines. 2022; 10(5):690. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050690

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliveira, Camille F.d., Walter F.F. Neto, Carla P.d. Silva, Ana C.S. Ribeiro, Lívia C. Martins, Alana W.d. Sousa, Maria N.O. Freitas, Jannifer O. Chiang, Franko A. Silva, Eder B.d. Santos, Daniele B.A. Medeiros, Gleiciane S. Pinheiro, Gleiciane F. Brandão, Valéria L. Carvalho, Raimunda S.S. Azevedo, Pedro F.C. Vasconcelos, Igor B. Costa, Iran B. Costa, Mirleide C.d. Santos, Luana S. Soares, Rayssa L.S. Bedran, James L. Ferreira, Alberto A. Amarilla, Naphak Modhiran, Christopher L.D. McMillan, Morgan E. Freney, David A. Muller, Daniel Watterson, Lívia M.N. Casseb, and Daniele F. Henriques. 2022. "Absence of Anti-RBD Antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 Infected or Naive Individuals Prior to Vaccination with CoronaVac Leads to Short Protection of Only Four Months Duration" Vaccines 10, no. 5: 690. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050690

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