Next Article in Journal
What Determines Vaccine Hesitancy: Recommendations from Childhood Vaccine Hesitancy to Address COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
Next Article in Special Issue
Childhood Immunisation Coverage during the COVID-19 Epidemic in Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Circulating Cytokines in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Select Different Prognostic Groups and Patients Who Might Benefit from Treatment beyond Progression
Article

Rapid Weight Loss, Central Obesity Improvement and Blood Glucose Reduction Are Associated with a Stronger Adaptive Immune Response Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine

1
Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Vasso Apostolopoulos
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010079
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 28 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 5 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccines: The Way Back to Normal Life Is Now Marked)
Obesity is associated with a poor COVID-19 prognosis, and it seems associated with reduced humoral response to vaccination. Public health campaigns have advocated for weight loss in subjects with obesity, hoping to eliminate this risk. However, no evidence proves that weight loss leads to a better prognosis or a stronger immune response to vaccination. We aimed to investigate the impact of rapid weight loss on the adaptive immune response in subjects with morbid obesity. Twenty-one patients followed a hypocaloric, very-low-carbohydrate diet one week before to one week after the two mRNA vaccine doses. The diet’s safety and efficacy were assessed, and the adaptive humoral (anti-SARS CoV-2 S antibodies, Abs) and cell-mediated responses (IFNγ secretion on stimulation with two different SARS CoV-2 peptide mixes, IFNγ-1 and IFNγ-2) were evaluated. The patients lost ~10% of their body weight with metabolic improvement. A high baseline BMI correlated with a poor immune response (R −0.558, p = 0.013 for IFNγ-1; R −0.581, p = 0.009 for IFNγ-2; R −0.512, p = 0.018 for Abs). Furthermore, there was a correlation between weight loss and higher IFNγ-2 (R 0.471, p = 0.042), and between blood glucose reduction and higher IFNγ-1 (R 0.534, p = 0.019), maintained after weight loss and waist circumference reduction adjustment. Urate reduction correlated with higher Abs (R 0.552, p = 0.033). In conclusion, obesity is associated with a reduced adaptive response to a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, and weight loss and metabolic improvement may reverse the effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMI; SARS CoV-2; infection; immunogenicity; diabetes; waist circumference; vaccination BMI; SARS CoV-2; infection; immunogenicity; diabetes; waist circumference; vaccination
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, M.; Balena, A.; Masi, D.; Tozzi, R.; Risi, R.; Caputi, A.; Rossetti, R.; Spoltore, M.E.; Biagi, F.; Anastasi, E.; Angeloni, A.; Mariani, S.; Lubrano, C.; Tuccinardi, D.; Gnessi, L. Rapid Weight Loss, Central Obesity Improvement and Blood Glucose Reduction Are Associated with a Stronger Adaptive Immune Response Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine. Vaccines 2022, 10, 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010079

AMA Style

Watanabe M, Balena A, Masi D, Tozzi R, Risi R, Caputi A, Rossetti R, Spoltore ME, Biagi F, Anastasi E, Angeloni A, Mariani S, Lubrano C, Tuccinardi D, Gnessi L. Rapid Weight Loss, Central Obesity Improvement and Blood Glucose Reduction Are Associated with a Stronger Adaptive Immune Response Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine. Vaccines. 2022; 10(1):79. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010079

Chicago/Turabian Style

Watanabe, Mikiko, Angela Balena, Davide Masi, Rossella Tozzi, Renata Risi, Alessandra Caputi, Rebecca Rossetti, Maria E. Spoltore, Filippo Biagi, Emanuela Anastasi, Antonio Angeloni, Stefania Mariani, Carla Lubrano, Dario Tuccinardi, and Lucio Gnessi. 2022. "Rapid Weight Loss, Central Obesity Improvement and Blood Glucose Reduction Are Associated with a Stronger Adaptive Immune Response Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine" Vaccines 10, no. 1: 79. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010079

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop