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Review

Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review

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Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, Laser Therapy Centre, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV,6, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Department of Oral Surgery, Dental Institute, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS, UK
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Department of Periodontology, Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur 441110, India
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Department of Land Measurements and Exact Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Oral Rehabilitation, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Joined last authorship.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090875
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 13 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has taken the entire globe by storm. The pathogenesis of this virus has shown a cytokine storm release, which contributes to critical or severe multi-organ failure. Currently the ultimate treatment is palliative; however, many modalities have been introduced with effective or minimal outcomes. Meanwhile, enormous efforts are ongoing to produce safe vaccines and therapies. Phototherapy has a wide range of clinical applications against various maladies. This necessitates the exploration of the role of phototherapy, if any, for COVID-19. This critical review was conducted to understand COVID-19 disease and highlights the prevailing facts that link phototherapy utilisation as a potential treatment modality for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. The results demonstrated phototherapy’s efficacy in regulating cytokines and inflammatory mediators, increasing angiogenesis and enhancing healing in chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In conclusion, this review answered the following research question. Which molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of phototherapy have demonstrated great potential in enhancing the immune response and reducing host–viral interaction in COVID-19 patients? Therefore, phototherapy is a promising treatment modality, which needs to be validated further for COVID-19 by robust and rigorous randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials to evaluate its impartial outcomes and safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; phototherapy; photobiomodulation; photodynamic therapy; low-level laser therapy; nitric oxide; antioxidant; cytokines; vaccines SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; phototherapy; photobiomodulation; photodynamic therapy; low-level laser therapy; nitric oxide; antioxidant; cytokines; vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanna, R.; Dalvi, S.; Sălăgean, T.; Bordea, I.R.; Benedicenti, S. Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 875. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090875

AMA Style

Hanna R, Dalvi S, Sălăgean T, Bordea IR, Benedicenti S. Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):875. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090875

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanna, Reem, Snehal Dalvi, Tudor Sălăgean, Ioana R. Bordea, and Stefano Benedicenti. 2020. "Phototherapy as a Rational Antioxidant Treatment Modality in COVID-19 Management; New Concept and Strategic Approach: Critical Review" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 875. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090875

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