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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Cancer Effects of Italian Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. Methanol Leaves Extracts

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
2
Faculté de Pharmacie de Paris, Université de Paris, U.M.R. n 8038, —CiTCoM (CNRS, Université de Paris), 75006 Paris, France
3
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Science of Food Production (ISPA), Prov. le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090826
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
In this study, we evaluated and compared the chemical composition, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects of four methanol extracts (R1–R4), of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. in two different sites of Southern Italy obtained by maceration or ultrasound-assisted extraction. Extracts of S. rosmarinus collected on the Ionian coast are indicated with the abbreviations R1 (maceration) and R2 (ultrasound-assisted extraction). Extracts of S. rosmarinus collected on the Tyrrhenian coast are indicated with the abbreviations R3 (maceration) and R4 (ultrasound-assisted extraction). The chemical composition was analyzed using High Pressure liquid chromatography–Diod-Array detection–Electrospray ionization–Quadrupole–Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-MS). The antioxidant activity was analyzed by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. Antioxidant features were also assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW-264.7 murine macrophages, evaluating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production; in the same experimental model, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was investigated. Interestingly, all extracts displayed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They exhibited significative nitrite production inhibitory activity, whith IC50 values ranging from 3.46 to 5.53 µg/mL, without impairing cell viability. The anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence assay, highlighting the R3 and R4 extracts ability to reduce NF-κB translocation, as well as to disrupt the MAPKs signaling pathway. Extracts exhibited both potential anti-proliferative activity on breast cancer cells, inducing apoptosis, without affecting non-tumorigenic cells, and the ability to inhibit MDA-MB-231 cells’ motility. Finally, the rosemary extracts treatment significantly reduced the power of conditioned media, from MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 cells to induce nitrite production on RAW 264.7 cells, confirming their promising anti-inflammatory activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosemary; extraction procedures; high pressure liquid chromatography–diod-array detection–electrospray ionization–quadrupole–mass spectroscopy (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-MS); antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB/MAPK pathway; anti-cancer activity rosemary; extraction procedures; high pressure liquid chromatography–diod-array detection–electrospray ionization–quadrupole–mass spectroscopy (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-MS); antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB/MAPK pathway; anti-cancer activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brindisi, M.; Bouzidi, C.; Frattaruolo, L.; Loizzo, M.R.; Tundis, R.; Dugay, A.; Deguin, B.; Cappello, A.R.; Cappello, M.S. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Cancer Effects of Italian Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. Methanol Leaves Extracts. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 826. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090826

AMA Style

Brindisi M, Bouzidi C, Frattaruolo L, Loizzo MR, Tundis R, Dugay A, Deguin B, Cappello AR, Cappello MS. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Cancer Effects of Italian Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. Methanol Leaves Extracts. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):826. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090826

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brindisi, Matteo; Bouzidi, Chouaha; Frattaruolo, Luca; Loizzo, Monica R.; Tundis, Rosa; Dugay, Annabelle; Deguin, Brigitte; Cappello, Anna R.; Cappello, Maria S. 2020. "Chemical Profile, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Cancer Effects of Italian Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. Methanol Leaves Extracts" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 826. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090826

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