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Open AccessArticle

Changes in Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Muscle Damage Markers Following Diet and Beetroot Juice Supplementation in Elite Fencers

1
Department of Dietetics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Nowoursynowska 15c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Biological and Environmental Monitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw. Teresy 8, 91-348 Łódź, Poland
3
Department of Physiology and Sport Medicine, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070571 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Exercise)
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diet and active substances in beetroot juice on the parameters of oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage as well as on the maximum rate of oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite fencers (10 women, 10 men). Athletes during four weeks realized dietary recommendations (ID) and, after that, diet with freeze-dried beetroot juice supplementation (ID&BEET). At baseline and after each stage, fasting antioxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and skeletal muscle damage were measured, and a VO2max test was performed. Only after ID&BEET was a significant increase of VO2max observed, and changes of this parameter were negatively related with changes of serum lactate dehydrogenase (∆LDH) activity, as well as with serum ∆β-carotene and malondialdehyde concentration (∆MDA). Additionally, positive relationships were observed between ∆β-carotene versus changes of the serum concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (∆AOPP), changes of serum glutathione peroxidase activity (∆GPx3) versus both changes of physical activity level and ∆LDH, as well as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (∆GPx1) versus ∆LDH. To summarize, we showed that long-term beetroot juice supplementation increases lipid peroxidation, and improvement of VO2max after ID&BEET seems to be dependent on LDH activity, as well as on the serum concentration of MDA and β-carotene. View Full-Text
Keywords: malondialdehyde; advanced oxidation protein products; 8oxodG; ceruloplasmin; glutathione peroxidase; lactate dehydrogenase; interleukin 6; β-carotene; maximum rate of oxygen uptake; trace elements malondialdehyde; advanced oxidation protein products; 8oxodG; ceruloplasmin; glutathione peroxidase; lactate dehydrogenase; interleukin 6; β-carotene; maximum rate of oxygen uptake; trace elements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kozłowska, L.; Mizera, O.; Gromadzińska, J.; Janasik, B.; Mikołajewska, K.; Mróz, A.; Wąsowicz, W. Changes in Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Muscle Damage Markers Following Diet and Beetroot Juice Supplementation in Elite Fencers. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 571.

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