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Open AccessArticle

The Hypoxia Tolerance of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Heart: The NOS/NO System and Beyond

Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to the work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 555;
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 21 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
The extraordinary capacity of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) to increase its cardiac performance under acute hypoxia is crucial in ensuring adequate oxygen supply to tissues and organs. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not yet completely elucidated. By employing an ex vivo working heart preparation, we observed that the time-dependent enhancement of contractility, distinctive of the hypoxic goldfish heart, is abolished by the Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) antagonist L-NMMA, the Nitric Oxide (NO) scavenger PTIO, as well as by the PI3-kinase (PI3-K) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) pumps’ inhibition by Wortmannin and Thapsigargin, respectively. In goldfish hearts exposed to hypoxia, an ELISA test revealed no changes in cGMP levels, while Western Blotting analysis showed an enhanced expression of the phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) and of the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit Nox2 (gp91phox). A significant decrease of protein S-nitrosylation was observed by Biotin Switch assay in hypoxic hearts. Results suggest a role for a PI3-K/Akt-mediated activation of the NOS-dependent NO production, and SERCA2a pumps in the mechanisms conferring benefits to the goldfish heart under hypoxia. They also propose protein denitrosylation, and the possibility of nitration, as parallel intracellular events. View Full-Text
Keywords: myocardial performance; cGMP; SERCA2a; Nox2; nitrosative signals myocardial performance; cGMP; SERCA2a; Nox2; nitrosative signals
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Filice, M.; Mazza, R.; Leo, S.; Gattuso, A.; Cerra, M.C.; Imbrogno, S. The Hypoxia Tolerance of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Heart: The NOS/NO System and Beyond. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 555.

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