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Open AccessArticle

Ethosomes for Coenzyme Q10 Cutaneous Administration: From Design to 3D Skin Tissue Evaluation

1
Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy
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Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, I-60131 Ancona, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical and Specialist Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy
4
Bavarian Polymer Institute (BPI) Keylab “Electron and Optical Microscopy”, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany
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Animal Science Dept., Plants for Human Health Institute, NC Research Campus, NC State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
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Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060485
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
Ethosome represents a smart transdermal vehicle suitable for solubilization and cutaneous application of drugs. Coenzyme Q10 is an endogenous antioxidant whose supplementation can counteract many cutaneous disorders and pathologies. In this respect, the present study describes the production, characterization, and cutaneous protection of phosphatidylcholine based ethosomes as percutaneous delivery systems for coenzyme Q10. CoQ10 entrapment capacity in ethosomes was almost 100%, vesicles showed the typical ‘fingerprint’ structure, while mean diameters were around 270 nm, undergoing an 8% increase after 3 months from production. An ex-vivo study, conducted by transmission electron microscopy, could detect the uptake of ethosomes in human skin fibroblasts and the passage of the vesicles through 3D reconstituted human epidermis. Immunofluorescence analyses were carried on both on fibroblasts and 3D reconstituted human epidermis treated with ethosomes in the presence of H2O2 as oxidative stress challenger, evaluating 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts which is as a reliable biomarker for oxidative damage. Notably, the pretreatment with CoQ10 loaded in ethosomes exerted a consistent protective effect against oxidative stress, in both models, fibroblasts and in reconstituted human epidermis respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethosome; ubiquinone; H2O2; penetration enhancers; dermal administration; reconstituted human epidermis; small angle X-ray scattering ethosome; ubiquinone; H2O2; penetration enhancers; dermal administration; reconstituted human epidermis; small angle X-ray scattering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sguizzato, M.; Mariani, P.; Spinozzi, F.; Benedusi, M.; Cervellati, F.; Cortesi, R.; Drechsler, M.; Prieux, R.; Valacchi, G.; Esposito, E. Ethosomes for Coenzyme Q10 Cutaneous Administration: From Design to 3D Skin Tissue Evaluation. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 485.

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