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A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di- or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds

Food Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lascaray Research Center, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Paseo de la Universidad nº 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040312
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
The effect of enriching virgin flaxseed oil with dodecyl gallate, hydroxytyrosol acetate or gamma-tocopherol on its in vitro digestion is studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extent and pattern of the lipolysis reached in each sample is analyzed, as is the bioaccessibility of the main oil components. None of the phenolic compounds provokes inhibition of the lipase activity and all of them reduce the lipid oxidation degree caused by the in vitro digestion and the bioaccessibility of oxidation compounds. The antioxidant efficiency of the three tested phenols is in line with the number of phenolic groups in its molecule, and is dose-dependent. The concentration of some minor oil components such as terpenes, sesquiterpenes, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol is not modified by in vitro digestion. Contrarily, gamma-tocopherol shows very low in vitro bioaccessibility, probably due to its antioxidant behavior, although this increases with enrichment of the phenolic compounds. Oxidation is produced during in vitro digestion even in the presence of a high concentration of gamma-tocopherol, which remains bioaccessible after digestion in the enriched samples of this compound. View Full-Text
Keywords: virgin flaxseed oil; in vitro digestion; oxidation; gamma-tocopherol; hydroxytyrosol acetate; dodecyl gallate; antioxidant efficiency; minor compounds; bioaccessibility virgin flaxseed oil; in vitro digestion; oxidation; gamma-tocopherol; hydroxytyrosol acetate; dodecyl gallate; antioxidant efficiency; minor compounds; bioaccessibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alberdi-Cedeño, J.; Ibargoitia, M.L.; Guillén, M.D. A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di- or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 312. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040312

AMA Style

Alberdi-Cedeño J, Ibargoitia ML, Guillén MD. A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di- or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(4):312. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040312

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L.; Guillén, María D. 2020. "A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di- or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds" Antioxidants 9, no. 4: 312. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040312

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