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The Glyoxalase System—New Insights into an Ancient Metabolism
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Article

Protection of Polyphenols against Glyco-Oxidative Stress: Involvement of Glyoxalase Pathway

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Biochemistry, Biology and Physics, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share first authorship.
Research Center of Health Education and Promotion, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101006
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology of Glyoxalases )
Chronic high glucose (HG) exposure increases methylglyoxal (MGO)-derived advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and is involved in the onset of pathological conditions, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and chronic-degenerative diseases. Under physiologic conditions the harmful effects of MGO are contrasted by glyoxalase system that is implicated in the detoxification of Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS) and maintain the homeostasis of the redox environment of the cell. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and present various health benefits. Aims of the study were to investigate the effects of HG-chronic exposure on glyco-oxidation and glyoxalase system in intestinal cells, using CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, we studied the effect of apple polyphenols on glyco-oxidative stress. Our data demonstrated that HG-treatment triggers glyco-oxidation stress with a significant increase in intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, AGEs, and increase of Glyoxalase I (GlxI) activity. On the contrary, Glyoxalase II (GlxII) activity was lower in HG-treated cells. We demonstrate that apple polyphenols exert a protective effect against oxidative stress and dicarbonyl stress. The increase of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione (GSH) levels in HG-treated cells in the presence of apple polyphenols was associated with a decrease of GlxI activity.
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Keywords: methylglyoxal; glyoxalase system; AGEs (advanced glycation end-products); glutathione; hyperglycemia methylglyoxal; glyoxalase system; AGEs (advanced glycation end-products); glutathione; hyperglycemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cianfruglia, L.; Morresi, C.; Bacchetti, T.; Armeni, T.; Ferretti, G. Protection of Polyphenols against Glyco-Oxidative Stress: Involvement of Glyoxalase Pathway. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101006

AMA Style

Cianfruglia L, Morresi C, Bacchetti T, Armeni T, Ferretti G. Protection of Polyphenols against Glyco-Oxidative Stress: Involvement of Glyoxalase Pathway. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(10):1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cianfruglia, Laura, Camilla Morresi, Tiziana Bacchetti, Tatiana Armeni, and Gianna Ferretti. 2020. "Protection of Polyphenols against Glyco-Oxidative Stress: Involvement of Glyoxalase Pathway" Antioxidants 9, no. 10: 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101006

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