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H2O2 Metabolism in Normal Thyroid Cells and in Thyroid Tumorigenesis: Focus on NADPH Oxidases

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
Diabetes Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Pathology, Jewish General Hospital and McGill University, Montréal, Québec, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 126;
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NADPH Oxidases in Metabolic Homeostasis)
Thyroid hormone synthesis requires adequate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production that is utilized as an oxidative agent during the synthesis of thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid H2O2 is generated by a member of the family of NADPH oxidase enzymes (NOX-es), termed dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2). NOX/DUOX enzymes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as their unique enzymatic activity in a timely and spatially regulated manner and therefore, are important regulators of diverse physiological processes. By contrast, dysfunctional NOX/DUOX-derived ROS production is associated with pathological conditions. Inappropriate DUOX2-generated H2O2 production results in thyroid hypofunction in rodent models. Recent studies also indicate that ROS improperly released by NOX4, another member of the NOX family, are involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. This review focuses on the current knowledge concerning the redox regulation of thyroid hormonogenesis and cancer development with a specific emphasis on the NOX and DUOX enzymes in these processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: NADPH oxidase; NOX4; dual oxidase; DUOX2; Thyroid; redox NADPH oxidase; NOX4; dual oxidase; DUOX2; Thyroid; redox
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szanto, I.; Pusztaszeri, M.; Mavromati, M. H2O2 Metabolism in Normal Thyroid Cells and in Thyroid Tumorigenesis: Focus on NADPH Oxidases. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 126.

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