Next Article in Journal
Acute Effects of Resistance Exercise and the Use of GH or IGF-1 Hormones on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Markers in Bodybuilders
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring Target Genes Involved in the Effect of Quercetin on the Response to Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Phenanthrenes in Dioscorea batatas Decne Peel, a Discarded Biomass from Postharvest Processing
Open AccessArticle

Saffron Processing Wastes as a Bioresource of High-Value Added Compounds: Development of a Green Extraction Process for Polyphenol Recovery Using a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent

1
School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Thessaly, N. Temponera Street, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
2
Food Quality & Chemistry of Natural Products, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M.A.I.Ch.), International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), P.O. Box 85, 73100 Chania, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120586
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
The current investigation was undertaken to examine saffron processing waste (SPW) as a bioresource, which could be valorized to produce extracts rich in antioxidant polyphenols, using a green, natural deep eutectic solvent (DES). Initially, there was an appraisal of the molar ratio of hydrogen bond donor/hydrogen bond acceptor in order to come up with the most efficient DES composed of L-lactic acid/glycine (5:1). The following step was the optimization of the extraction process using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions thus determined were a DES concentration of 55% (w/v), a liquid-to-solid ratio of 60 mL g−1, and a stirring speed of 800 rounds per minute. Under these conditions, the extraction yield in total polyphenols achieved was 132.43 ± 10.63 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of dry mass. The temperature assay performed within a range of 23 to 80 °C, suggested that extracts displayed maximum yield and antioxidant activity at 50–60 °C. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the SPW extract obtained under optimal conditions showed that the predominant flavonol was kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and the major anthocyanin delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside. The results indicated that SPW extraction with the DES used is a green and efficient methodology and may afford extracts rich flavonols and anthocyanins, which are considered to be powerful antioxidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; antioxidants; deep eutectic solvents; extraction; polyphenols; saffron anthocyanins; antioxidants; deep eutectic solvents; extraction; polyphenols; saffron
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lakka, A.; Grigorakis, S.; Karageorgou, I.; Batra, G.; Kaltsa, O.; Bozinou, E.; Lalas, S.; Makris, D.P. Saffron Processing Wastes as a Bioresource of High-Value Added Compounds: Development of a Green Extraction Process for Polyphenol Recovery Using a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 586.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop