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The Effects and Mechanisms of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside and Its Phenolic Metabolites in Maintaining Intestinal Integrity

1
Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
2
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100479
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is a well-known natural anthocyanin and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The catabolism of C3G in the gastrointestinal tract could produce bioactive phenolic metabolites, such as protocatechuic acid, phloroglucinaldehyde, vanillic acid, and ferulic acid, which enhance C3G bioavailability and contribute to both mucosal barrier and microbiota. To get an overview of the function and mechanisms of C3G and its phenolic metabolites, we review the accumulated data of the absorption and catabolism of C3G in the gastrointestine, and attempt to give crosstalk between the phenolic metabolites, gut microbiota, and mucosal innate immune signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanidin-3-glucoside; phenolic metabolites; gut microbiota; signaling pathways; intestinal injury cyanidin-3-glucoside; phenolic metabolites; gut microbiota; signaling pathways; intestinal injury
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Tan, J.; Li, Y.; Hou, D.-X.; Wu, S. The Effects and Mechanisms of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside and Its Phenolic Metabolites in Maintaining Intestinal Integrity. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 479.

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