Next Article in Journal
Say NO to ROS: Their Roles in Embryonic Heart Development and Pathogenesis of Congenital Heart Defects in Maternal Diabetes
Previous Article in Journal
Spray Drying of Blueberry Juice-Maltodextrin Mixtures: Evaluation of Processing Conditions on Content of Resveratrol
Open AccessArticle

Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Ricinine from Ricinus communis Leaves

1
Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Organic Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos SP 13560-970, Brazil
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cádiz, Instituto de Investigación en Biomoléculas, INBIO, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz), Spain
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cádiz, Instituto de Investigación Vitivinícola y Agroalimentaria, IVAGRO, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100438
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
The alkaloid ricinine (3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone) is found in different parts of the Ricinus communis plant and is known to possess several bioactive properties, including strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was developed for the recovery of ricinine from R. communis leaves. The extraction variables studied were extraction temperature (between 125 °C and 175 °C), microwave power (between 500 W and 1000 W), extraction time (between 5 min and 15 min), extraction solvent (between 10% and 90% of EtOAc in MeOH), and solvent-to-sample ratio (between 25:1 mL and 50:1 mL of solvent per gram of the sample). On studying the effects of extraction variables, both solvent and liquid-to-solid ratio were found to exhibit the highest effects on ricinine recovery. A fast (15 min) microwave-assisted extraction method was developed (high temperatures can be applied because the stability of ricinine is proven in the literature), allowing for the recovery of ricinine from R. communis leaves. The study revealed that R. communis leaves had almost 1.5 mg g−1 (dried weight) of ricinine. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave assisted-extraction; ricinine; Ricinus communis; UPLC; response surface methodology microwave assisted-extraction; ricinine; Ricinus communis; UPLC; response surface methodology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nebo, L.; Varela, R.M.; Fernandes, J.B.; Palma, M. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Ricinine from Ricinus communis Leaves. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 438.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop