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Article

Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosa rugosa Depending on Degree of Ripeness

1
Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 25-29, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen
3
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstraße 10, 07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2018, 7(10), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100134
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Maturity stage affects the bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant capacity in the fruit. This study was designed to identify and quantify carotenoids, as well as to evaluate vitamin E, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of Rosa rugosa hips at different degrees of ripeness. HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis showed different types of carotenoids at different stages of maturity of R. rugosa hips with significant differences (p ˂ 0.05), where the maximum concentration was observed at late harvesting. In the hips investigated, only α-tocopherol was detected, the maximum concentration of both vitamin E and vitamin C was obtained in the orange hips with significant difference (p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, the highest hydrophilic and lipophilic TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values, as well as total phenolic contents, were determined in the mature hips (red colour) with significant difference (p < 0.0001) and (p < 0.001) respectively, whereas ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) showed lower activity in the mature hips with significant difference (p ˂ 0.05). Late harvesting is recommended if a high content of carotenoids is desired, while harvesting should be carried out earlier if a higher vitamin E and vitamin C content is desired, which in turn affects the antioxidants capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: gazaniaxanthin; NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance); L-TEAC gazaniaxanthin; NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance); L-TEAC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Yafeai, A.; Bellstedt, P.; Böhm, V. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosa rugosa Depending on Degree of Ripeness. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100134

AMA Style

Al-Yafeai A, Bellstedt P, Böhm V. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosa rugosa Depending on Degree of Ripeness. Antioxidants. 2018; 7(10):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Yafeai, Ahlam, Peter Bellstedt, and Volker Böhm. 2018. "Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Rosa rugosa Depending on Degree of Ripeness" Antioxidants 7, no. 10: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100134

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