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Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 6;

Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Tocopherol Content in Almond

Département Arboriculture-Viticulture, École Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknès, Meknès BP S/40, Morocco
Unidad de Hortofruticutura, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Av. Montañana 930, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E)
Full-Text   |   PDF [236 KB, uploaded 5 January 2018]


Almond is the most important nut species worldwide and almond kernels show the highest levels of tocopherols among all nuts. In almond, tocopherols not only play a substantial role as a healthy food for human consumption, but also in protecting lipids against oxidation and, thus, lengthening the storage time of almond kernels. The main tocopherol homologues detected in almond in decreasing content and biological importance are α-, γ-, δ-, and β-tocopherol. Tocopherol concentration in almond depends on the genotype and the environment, such as the climatic conditions of the year and the growing management of the orchard. The range of variability for the different tocopherol homologues is of 335–657 mg/kg of almond oil for α-, 2–50 for γ-, and 0.1–22 for β-tocopherol. Drought and heat have been the most important stresses affecting tocopherol content in almond, with increased levels at higher temperatures and in water deficit conditions. The right cultivar and the most appropriate growing conditions may be selected to obtain crops with effective kernel storage and for the most beneficial effects of almond consumption for human nutrition and health. View Full-Text
Keywords: almond; Prunus amygdalus; tocopherols; genotype; climate almond; Prunus amygdalus; tocopherols; genotype; climate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kodad, O.; Socias i Company, R.; Alonso, J.M. Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Tocopherol Content in Almond. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 6.

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