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Open AccessArticle

A Possible Indicator of Oxidative Damage in Smokers: (13Z)-Lycopene?

Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, CCM, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 69;
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids—Antioxidant Properties)
In vitro, the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke is known to induce both isomerization and degradation of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and lycopene. However, the effects of cigarette smoke on the composition of circulating lycopene in vivo are not well understood. In this study, we examined the lycopene profiles of plasma from non-smokers and smokers. No oxidative intermediates of lycopene that have been observed previously in vitro were detected in the plasma, but evidence of isomerization of the carotenoid was seen. Four geometric forms of lycopene were detected in the plasma of both smokers and non-smokers, namely the (5Z), (9Z), (13Z) and (all-E) forms. The relative amounts of these isomers differed between the two cohorts and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between smokers and non-smokers for the ratio of total-Z:all-E lycopene, and in the relative amounts of (13Z) and (all-E)-lycopene. The ratio of (all-E):(13Z)-lycopene was 0.84:1.00 in smokers compared to 1.04:1.00 in non-smokers. In smokers, the (13Z)-isomer was generated in preference to the more thermodynamically stable (5Z) and (9Z)-isomers. This mirrors the scenario seen in vitro, in which the formation of (13Z)-lycopene was the main isomer that accompanied the depletion of (all-E) lycopene, when exposed to cigarette smoke. The results suggest that the relative amount of (13Z)-lycopene could be used as an indicator of oxidative damage to lycopene in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid; isomerization; lycopene; smoking; tomato carotenoid; isomerization; lycopene; smoking; tomato
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Graham, D.L.; Lorenz, M.; Young, A.J.; Lowe, G.M. A Possible Indicator of Oxidative Damage in Smokers: (13Z)-Lycopene? Antioxidants 2017, 6, 69.

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