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Assessing Antioxidant Capacity in Brain Tissue: Methodologies and Limitations in Neuroprotective Strategies

Bioscience Technology, Holland College, 140 Weymouth Street, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4Z1, Canada
School of Pharmacy, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 300 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, NL, A1B 3V6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 636-648;
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 24 July 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases)
The number of putative neuroprotective compounds with antioxidant activity described in the literature continues to grow. Although these compounds are validated using a variety of in vivo and in vitro techniques, they are often evaluated initially using in vitro cell culture techniques in order to establish toxicity and effective concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro methodologies have their respective advantages and disadvantages, including, but not limited to, cost, time, use of resources and technical limitations. This review expands on the inherent benefits and drawbacks of in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing neuroprotection, especially in light of proper evaluation of compound efficacy and neural bioavailability. For example, in vivo studies can better evaluate the effects of protective compounds and/or its metabolites on various tissues, including the brain, in the whole animal, whereas in vitro studies can better discern the cellular and/or mechanistic effects of compounds. In particular, we aim to address the question of appropriate and accurate extrapolation of findings from in vitro experiment-where compounds are often directly applied to cellular extracts, potentially at higher concentrations than would ever cross the blood-brain barrier—to the more complex scenario of neuroprotection due to pharmacodynamics in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; bioavailability; cell culture; neuroprotection antioxidant; bioavailability; cell culture; neuroprotection
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Slemmer, J.E.; Weber, J.T. Assessing Antioxidant Capacity in Brain Tissue: Methodologies and Limitations in Neuroprotective Strategies. Antioxidants 2014, 3, 636-648.

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