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Article

The Effect of Acute Oral Galactose Administration on the Redox System of the Rat Small Intestine

1
Department of Pharmacology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Bergamo
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010037
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
Galactose is a ubiquitous monosaccharide with important yet incompletely understood nutritive and physiological roles. Chronic parenteral d-galactose administration is used for modeling aging-related pathophysiological processes in rodents due to its ability to induce oxidative stress (OS). Conversely, chronic oral d-galactose administration prevents and alleviates cognitive decline in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, indicating that galactose may exert beneficial health effects by acting in the gut. The present aim was to explore the acute time-response of intestinal redox homeostasis following oral administration of d-galactose. Male Wistar rats were euthanized at baseline (n = 6), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 6), and 120 (n = 6) minutes following orogastric administration of d-galactose (200 mg/kg). The overall reductive capacity, lipid peroxidation, the concentration of low-molecular-weight thiols (LMWT) and protein sulfhydryls (SH), the activity of Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (SOD), reduced and oxidized fractions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphates (NADPH/NADP), and the hydrogen peroxide dissociation rate were analyzed in duodenum and ileum. Acute oral administration of d-galactose increased the activity of SODs and decreased intestinal lipid peroxidation and nucleophilic substrates (LMWT, SH, NADPH), indicating activation of peroxidative damage defense pathways. The redox system of the small intestine can acutely tolerate even high luminal concentrations of galactose (0.55 M), and oral galactose treatment is associated with a reduction rather than the increment of the intestinal OS. The ability of oral d-galactose to modulate intestinal OS should be further explored in the context of intestinal barrier maintenance, and beneficial cognitive effects associated with long-term administration of low doses of d-galactose. View Full-Text
Keywords: galactose; oxidative stress; gastrointestinal tract; redox; redox homeostasis galactose; oxidative stress; gastrointestinal tract; redox; redox homeostasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Homolak, J.; Babic Perhoc, A.; Knezovic, A.; Osmanovic Barilar, J.; Virag, D.; Joja, M.; Salkovic-Petrisic, M. The Effect of Acute Oral Galactose Administration on the Redox System of the Rat Small Intestine. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010037

AMA Style

Homolak J, Babic Perhoc A, Knezovic A, Osmanovic Barilar J, Virag D, Joja M, Salkovic-Petrisic M. The Effect of Acute Oral Galactose Administration on the Redox System of the Rat Small Intestine. Antioxidants. 2022; 11(1):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Homolak, Jan, Ana Babic Perhoc, Ana Knezovic, Jelena Osmanovic Barilar, Davor Virag, Mihovil Joja, and Melita Salkovic-Petrisic. 2022. "The Effect of Acute Oral Galactose Administration on the Redox System of the Rat Small Intestine" Antioxidants 11, no. 1: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010037

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