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Review

Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation

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Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Scientific Center of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Svetog Trojstva 3, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Pathophysiology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 10E, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department for Cardiovascular Disease, University Hospital Osijek, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital Vinkovci, Zvonarska 57, HR-32100 Vinkovci, Croatia
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Department for Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology, Clinical Hospital Center Osijek, J. Huttlera 4, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Internal Medicine, Vukovar General Hospital, HR-32000 Vukovar, Croatia
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Nutricin j.d.o.o. Darda, HR-31326 Darda, Croatia
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Department of Animal Production and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Chemistry, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8/A, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Esther Molina-Montes and Angela Hernández-Ruiz
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071037
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 28 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Total Antioxidant Capacity in Health and Disease)
Carnosine is a dipeptide synthesized in the body from β-alanine and L-histidine. It is found in high concentrations in the brain, muscle, and gastrointestinal tissues of humans and is present in all vertebrates. Carnosine has a number of beneficial antioxidant properties. For example, carnosine scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes created by peroxidation of fatty acid cell membranes during oxidative stress. Carnosine can oppose glycation, and it can chelate divalent metal ions. Carnosine alleviates diabetic nephropathy by protecting podocyte and mesangial cells, and can slow down aging. Its component, the amino acid beta-alanine, is particularly interesting as a dietary supplement for athletes because it increases muscle carnosine, and improves effectiveness of exercise and stimulation and contraction in muscles. Carnosine is widely used among athletes in the form of supplements, but rarely in the population of cardiovascular or diabetic patients. Much less is known, if any, about its potential use in enriched food. In the present review, we aimed to provide recent knowledge on carnosine properties and distribution, its metabolism (synthesis and degradation), and analytical methods for carnosine determination, since one of the difficulties is the measurement of carnosine concentration in human samples. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of carnosine’s biological effects in musculature, metabolism and on immunomodulation are discussed. Finally, this review provides a section on carnosine supplementation in the form of functional food and potential health benefits and up to the present, neglected clinical use of carnosine. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; antioxidants; functional food; carnosine oxidative stress; antioxidants; functional food; carnosine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jukić, I.; Kolobarić, N.; Stupin, A.; Matić, A.; Kozina, N.; Mihaljević, Z.; Mihalj, M.; Šušnjara, P.; Stupin, M.; Ćurić, Ž.B.; Selthofer-Relatić, K.; Kibel, A.; Lukinac, A.; Kolar, L.; Kralik, G.; Kralik, Z.; Széchenyi, A.; Jozanović, M.; Galović, O.; Medvidović-Kosanović, M.; Drenjančević, I. Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071037

AMA Style

Jukić I, Kolobarić N, Stupin A, Matić A, Kozina N, Mihaljević Z, Mihalj M, Šušnjara P, Stupin M, Ćurić ŽB, Selthofer-Relatić K, Kibel A, Lukinac A, Kolar L, Kralik G, Kralik Z, Széchenyi A, Jozanović M, Galović O, Medvidović-Kosanović M, Drenjančević I. Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(7):1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jukić, Ivana, Nikolina Kolobarić, Ana Stupin, Anita Matić, Nataša Kozina, Zrinka Mihaljević, Martina Mihalj, Petar Šušnjara, Marko Stupin, Željka B. Ćurić, Kristina Selthofer-Relatić, Aleksandar Kibel, Anamarija Lukinac, Luka Kolar, Gordana Kralik, Zlata Kralik, Aleksandar Széchenyi, Marija Jozanović, Olivera Galović, Martina Medvidović-Kosanović, and Ines Drenjančević. 2021. "Carnosine, Small but Mighty—Prospect of Use as Functional Ingredient for Functional Food Formulation" Antioxidants 10, no. 7: 1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071037

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