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Article

High-Throughput Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Stone Fruits Waste by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities

1
School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3217, Australia
3
Faculty of Biological Sciences, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefania D’Angelo
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020234
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of “Polyphenolic Food” and Human Health)
Stone fruits, including peach (Prunus persica L.), nectarine (Prunus nucipersica L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) are common commercial fruits in the market. However, a huge amount of stone fruits waste is produced throughout the food supply chain during picking, handling, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, retailing and final consumption. These stone fruits waste contain high phenolic content which are the main contributors to the antioxidant potential and associated health benefits. The antioxidant results showed that plum waste contained higher concentrations of total phenolic content (TPC) (0.94 ± 0.07 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and total flavonoid content (TFC) (0.34 ± 0.01 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g), while apricot waste contained a higher concentration of total tannin content (TTC) (0.19 ± 0.03 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g) and DPPH activity (1.47 ± 0.12 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g). However, nectarine waste had higher antioxidant capacity in ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) (0.98 ± 0.02 mg AAE/g) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (0.91 ± 0.09 mg AAE/g) assays, while peach waste showed higher antioxidant capacity in 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay (0.43 ± 0.09 mg AAE/g) as compared to other stone fruits waste. Qualitative and quantitative phenolic analysis of Australian grown stone fruits waste were conducted by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) and HPLC-photodiode array detection (PDA). The LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS result indicates that 59 phenolic compounds were tentatively characterized in peach (33 compounds), nectarine (28), plum (38) and apricot (23). The HPLC-PDA indicated that p-hydroxybenzoic acid (18.64 ± 1.30 mg/g) was detected to be the most dominant phenolic acid and quercetin (19.68 ± 1.38 mg/g) was the most significant flavonoid in stone fruits waste. Hence, it could be concluded that stone fruit waste contains various phenolic compounds and have antioxidant potential. The results could support the applications of these stone fruit wastes in other food, feed, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit waste; stone fruits; phenolic compounds; LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS; HPLC-PDA fruit waste; stone fruits; phenolic compounds; LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS; HPLC-PDA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, Y.; Wang, Z.; Barrow, C.J.; Dunshea, F.R.; Suleria, H.A.R. High-Throughput Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Stone Fruits Waste by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020234

AMA Style

Hong Y, Wang Z, Barrow CJ, Dunshea FR, Suleria HAR. High-Throughput Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Stone Fruits Waste by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(2):234. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hong, Yili, Zening Wang, Colin J. Barrow, Frank R. Dunshea, and Hafiz A.R. Suleria 2021. "High-Throughput Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Stone Fruits Waste by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and Their Potential Antioxidant Activities" Antioxidants 10, no. 2: 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020234

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