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Article

Oleuropein-Rich Leaf Extract as a Broad Inhibitor of Tumour and Macrophage iNOS in an Apc Mutant Rat Model

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
NEUROFARBA Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
3
PHYTOLAB (Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Food Supplement Technology and Analysis)-DiSIA, Department of Statistics, Informatics, Applications “Giuseppe Parenti”, Scientific and Technological Pole, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto, Italy
4
Center of Excellence for Research, Transfer and High Education DenoTHE, School of Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Ferdinando Nicoletti and José M. Matés
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101577
Received: 28 July 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 1 October 2021 / Published: 6 October 2021
Oleuropein, the major compound found in olive leaves, has been reported to exert numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of oleuropein-rich leaf extracts (ORLE) in already-developed colon tumours arising in Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) mutated PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apcam1137). Here, we were able to investigate in parallel the anti-cancer effect of ORLE, both in vivo and in vitro, and its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, representing a critical and abundant population in most solid tumour microenvironment. We found that in vivo ORLE treatment promoted apoptosis and attenuated iNOS activity both in colon tumours as in peritoneal macrophages of PIRC rats. We this confirmed in vitro using primary RAW264.7 cells: ORLE reduced iNOS activity in parallel with COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that ORLE possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity, which could be crucial for dampening the pro-tumourigenic activity elicited by a chronic inflammatory state generated by either tumour cells or tumour-associated macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: oleuropein; colon tumours; PIRC rats; activated macrophages; chronic inflammation; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); nitric oxide (NO) oleuropein; colon tumours; PIRC rats; activated macrophages; chronic inflammation; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); nitric oxide (NO)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruzzolini, J.; Chioccioli, S.; Monaco, N.; Peppicelli, S.; Andreucci, E.; Urciuoli, S.; Romani, A.; Luceri, C.; Tortora, K.; Calorini, L.; Caderni, G.; Nediani, C.; Bianchini, F. Oleuropein-Rich Leaf Extract as a Broad Inhibitor of Tumour and Macrophage iNOS in an Apc Mutant Rat Model. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101577

AMA Style

Ruzzolini J, Chioccioli S, Monaco N, Peppicelli S, Andreucci E, Urciuoli S, Romani A, Luceri C, Tortora K, Calorini L, Caderni G, Nediani C, Bianchini F. Oleuropein-Rich Leaf Extract as a Broad Inhibitor of Tumour and Macrophage iNOS in an Apc Mutant Rat Model. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(10):1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101577

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruzzolini, Jessica, Sofia Chioccioli, Noemi Monaco, Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Silvia Urciuoli, Annalisa Romani, Cristina Luceri, Katia Tortora, Lido Calorini, Giovanna Caderni, Chiara Nediani, and Francesca Bianchini. 2021. "Oleuropein-Rich Leaf Extract as a Broad Inhibitor of Tumour and Macrophage iNOS in an Apc Mutant Rat Model" Antioxidants 10, no. 10: 1577. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101577

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