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Article

Chemometric Classification of Cocoa Bean Shells Based on Their Polyphenolic Profile Determined by RP-HPLC-PDA Analysis and Spectrophotometric Assays

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Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Sciences (DISAFA), University of Turin, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
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RD3 Department-Unit of Pharmacognosy, Bioanalysis and Drug Discovery, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alfredo Aires
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101533
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics as Antioxidant Agents)
The cocoa bean shell (CBS), a byproduct from the cocoa industry, was recently proposed as a functional and low-cost ingredient, mainly because of its content in polyphenols. However, vegetal food products could significantly differ in their chemical composition depending on different factors such as their geographical provenience. This work is aimed to determine the polyphenolic and methylxanthine profile of different CBS samples and utilize it for achieving their differentiation according to their geographical origin and variety. RP-HPLC-PDA was used to determine the CBS polyphenolic profile. Spectrophotometric assays were used to obtain the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents, as well as to evaluate their radical scavenging activity. The results obtained from both methods were then compared and used for the CBS differentiation according to their origin and varieties through chemometric analysis. RP-HPLC-PDA allowed to determine 25 polyphenolic compounds, as well as the methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine. Polyphenolic profile results highlighted significant differences among the analyzed samples, allowing for their differentiation based on their geographical provenience. Similar results were achieved with the results of the spectrophotometric assays, considered as screening methods. Differentiation based on CBS variety was instead obtained based on the HPLC-determined methylxanthine profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa bean shell; cocoa byproduct; RP-HPLC-PDA; spectrophotometric assays; radical scavenging activity; principal component analysis; polyphenols; methylxanthines; fingerprints; cocoa markers cocoa bean shell; cocoa byproduct; RP-HPLC-PDA; spectrophotometric assays; radical scavenging activity; principal component analysis; polyphenols; methylxanthines; fingerprints; cocoa markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rojo-Poveda, O.; Zeppa, G.; Ferrocino, I.; Stévigny, C.; Barbosa-Pereira, L. Chemometric Classification of Cocoa Bean Shells Based on Their Polyphenolic Profile Determined by RP-HPLC-PDA Analysis and Spectrophotometric Assays. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101533

AMA Style

Rojo-Poveda O, Zeppa G, Ferrocino I, Stévigny C, Barbosa-Pereira L. Chemometric Classification of Cocoa Bean Shells Based on Their Polyphenolic Profile Determined by RP-HPLC-PDA Analysis and Spectrophotometric Assays. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(10):1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101533

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rojo-Poveda, Olga, Giuseppe Zeppa, Ilario Ferrocino, Caroline Stévigny, and Letricia Barbosa-Pereira. 2021. "Chemometric Classification of Cocoa Bean Shells Based on Their Polyphenolic Profile Determined by RP-HPLC-PDA Analysis and Spectrophotometric Assays" Antioxidants 10, no. 10: 1533. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101533

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