Next Article in Journal
Connectivity Analysis Using Functional Brain Networks to Evaluate Cognitive Activity during 3D Modelling
Next Article in Special Issue
Applying a Sensing-Enabled System for Ensuring Safe Anterior Cingulate Deep Brain Stimulation for Pain
Previous Article in Journal
Brain–Computer Interfaces for Human Augmentation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neuromodulation for Pelvic and Urogenital Pain
Open AccessArticle

Neurostimulation for Intractable Chronic Pain

1
Spine and Nerve Center of the Virginias, Charleston, VA 25301, USA
2
Pain Treatment Centers of America, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
3
Ainsworth Institute of Pain Management, New York, NY 10022, USA
4
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California San Diego Health Sciences, San Diego, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020023
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromodulation for Intractable Pain)
The field of neuromodulation has seen unprecedented growth over the course of the last decade with novel waveforms, hardware advancements, and novel chronic pain indications. We present here an updated review on spinal cord stimulation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation, and peripheral nerve stimulation. We focus on mechanisms of action, clinical indications, and future areas of research. We also present current drawbacks with current stimulation technology and suggest areas of future advancements. Given the current shortage of viable treatment options using a pharmacological based approach and conservative interventional therapies, neuromodulation presents an interesting area of growth and development for the interventional pain field and provides current and future practitioners a fresh outlook with regards to its place in the chronic pain treatment paradigm. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuromodulation; neurostimulation; spinal cord stimulation; dorsal root ganglion stimulation; peripheral nerve stimulation; chronic pain neuromodulation; neurostimulation; spinal cord stimulation; dorsal root ganglion stimulation; peripheral nerve stimulation; chronic pain
MDPI and ACS Style

Deer, T.R.; Jain, S.; Hunter, C.; Chakravarthy, K. Neurostimulation for Intractable Chronic Pain. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop