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Neurostimulation for Intractable Chronic Pain

Spine and Nerve Center of the Virginias, Charleston, VA 25301, USA
Pain Treatment Centers of America, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Ainsworth Institute of Pain Management, New York, NY 10022, USA
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California San Diego Health Sciences, San Diego, CA 92037, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 23;
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuromodulation for Intractable Pain)
PDF [270 KB, uploaded 24 January 2019]


The field of neuromodulation has seen unprecedented growth over the course of the last decade with novel waveforms, hardware advancements, and novel chronic pain indications. We present here an updated review on spinal cord stimulation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation, and peripheral nerve stimulation. We focus on mechanisms of action, clinical indications, and future areas of research. We also present current drawbacks with current stimulation technology and suggest areas of future advancements. Given the current shortage of viable treatment options using a pharmacological based approach and conservative interventional therapies, neuromodulation presents an interesting area of growth and development for the interventional pain field and provides current and future practitioners a fresh outlook with regards to its place in the chronic pain treatment paradigm. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuromodulation; neurostimulation; spinal cord stimulation; dorsal root ganglion stimulation; peripheral nerve stimulation; chronic pain neuromodulation; neurostimulation; spinal cord stimulation; dorsal root ganglion stimulation; peripheral nerve stimulation; chronic pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Deer, T.R.; Jain, S.; Hunter, C.; Chakravarthy, K. Neurostimulation for Intractable Chronic Pain. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 23.

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