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Open AccessReview

A Review of Neurostimulation for Epilepsy in Pediatrics

1
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2
Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100283
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epilepsy Surgery and Neuromodulation)
Neurostimulation for epilepsy refers to the application of electricity to affect the central nervous system, with the goal of reducing seizure frequency and severity. We review the available evidence for the use of neurostimulation to treat pediatric epilepsy, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), responsive neurostimulation (RNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation (CSCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We consider possible mechanisms of action and safety concerns, and we propose a methodology for selecting between available options. In general, we find neurostimulation is safe and effective, although any high quality evidence applying neurostimulation to pediatrics is lacking. Further research is needed to understand neuromodulatory systems, and to identify biomarkers of response in order to establish optimal stimulation paradigms. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric neurostimulation; neuromodulation; drug-resistant epilepsy; vagus nerve stimulation; responsive neurostimulation; deep brain stimulation; chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation pediatric neurostimulation; neuromodulation; drug-resistant epilepsy; vagus nerve stimulation; responsive neurostimulation; deep brain stimulation; chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; transcranial direct current stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starnes, K.; Miller, K.; Wong-Kisiel, L.; Lundstrom, B.N. A Review of Neurostimulation for Epilepsy in Pediatrics. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 283.

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