Despite the persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adulthood and adolescence, there are few objective, reliable instruments (based on patient performance) that have been shown to be able to predict current and retrospective ADHD symptoms. The present study aimed to explore whether a validated VR test called Nesplora Aquarium is able to predict ADHD symptoms in adults and adolescents, based on both current and retrospective self-reports. A non-clinical sample of 156 adults and adolescents (70 women and 86 men) between 16 and 54 years of age (M
= 21.23, SD
= 8.04) took part in the study. Virtual reality (VR) variables such as the number of correct answers, omission and commission errors, among others, were used to predict current and retrospective self-reported symptoms of ADHD using multiple regression models. Correct answers and omission errors in the VR test significantly predicted both current and retrospective ADHD symptoms. However, only the number of perseveration errors and gender were able to significantly predict retrospective ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest that inattention problems tend to remain after adolescence, while perseveration errors (which have been related to impulsive behavior) and gender differences tend to diminish.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited