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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(7), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070134

A Pilot Study Investigating a Novel Non-Linear Measure of Eyes Open versus Eyes Closed EEG Synchronization in People with Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Controls

1
Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2HQ, UK
2
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
3
School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43, UK
4
School of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 2TN, UK
5
Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 2TN, UK
6
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7, UK
7
Department of Automatic Control & Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract

Background: The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing with the ageing population. The development of low cost non-invasive diagnostic aids for AD is a research priority. This pilot study investigated whether an approach based on a novel dynamic quantitative parametric EEG method could detect abnormalities in people with AD. Methods: 20 patients with probable AD, 20 matched healthy controls (HC) and 4 patients with probable fronto temporal dementia (FTD) were included. All had detailed neuropsychology along with structural, resting state fMRI and EEG. EEG data were analyzed using the Error Reduction Ratio-causality (ERR-causality) test that can capture both linear and nonlinear interactions between different EEG recording areas. The 95% confidence intervals of EEG levels of bi-centroparietal synchronization were estimated for eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) states. Results: In the EC state, AD patients and HC had very similar levels of bi-centro parietal synchronization; but in the EO resting state, patients with AD had significantly higher levels of synchronization (AD = 0.44; interquartile range (IQR) 0.41 vs. HC = 0.15; IQR 0.17, p < 0.0001). The EO/EC synchronization ratio, a measure of the dynamic changes between the two states, also showed significant differences between these two groups (AD ratio 0.78 versus HC ratio 0.37 p < 0.0001). EO synchronization was also significantly different between AD and FTD (FTD = 0.075; IQR 0.03, p < 0.0001). However, the EO/EC ratio was not informative in the FTD group due to very low levels of synchronization in both states (EO and EC). Conclusion: In this pilot work, resting state quantitative EEG shows significant differences between healthy controls and patients with AD. This approach has the potential to develop into a useful non-invasive and economical diagnostic aid in AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; electroencephalography; clinical marker; ROC curve; nonlinear dynamics Alzheimer’s disease; electroencephalography; clinical marker; ROC curve; nonlinear dynamics
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Blackburn, D.J.; Zhao, Y.; De Marco, M.; Bell, S.M.; He, F.; Wei, H.-L.; Lawrence, S.; Unwin, Z.C.; Blyth, M.; Angel, J.; Baster, K.; Farrow, T.F.D.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Billings, S.A.; Venneri, A.; Sarrigiannis, P.G. A Pilot Study Investigating a Novel Non-Linear Measure of Eyes Open versus Eyes Closed EEG Synchronization in People with Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy Controls. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 134.

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