High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumors. Even though it has been demonstrated that combined surgical therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy improve survival, HGGs still harbor a very poor prognosis and limited overall survival. Differently from other types of primary neoplasm, HGG manifests also as a neurological disease. According to this, palliative care of HGG patients represents a peculiar challenge for healthcare providers and caregivers since it has to be directed to both general and neurological cancer symptoms. In this way, the end-of-life (EOL) phase of HGG patients appears to be like a journey through medical issues, progressive neurological deterioration, and psychological, social, and affective concerns. EOL is intended as the time prior to death when symptoms increase and antitumoral therapy is no longer effective. In this phase, palliative care is intended as an integrated support aimed to reduce the symptoms burden and improve the Quality Of Life (QOL). Palliative care is represented by medical, physical, psychological, spiritual, and social interventions which are primarily aimed to sustain patients’ functions during the disease time, while maintaining an acceptable quality of life and ensuring a dignified death. Since HGGs represent also a family concern, due to the profound emotional and relational issues that the progression of the disease poses, palliative care may also relieve the distress of the caregivers and increase the satisfaction of patients’ relatives. We present the results of a literature review addressed to enlighten and classify the best medical, psychological, rehabilitative, and social interventions that are addressed both to patients and to their caregivers, which are currently adopted as palliative care during the EOL phase of HGG patients in order to orientate the best medical practice in HGG management.
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