Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Hypoxia and Inflammation on Synaptic Signaling in the CNS
Previous Article in Journal
Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pedunculopontine Gamma Band Activity and Development
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(1), 5;

Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems

Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, 3-4-32 Todaijima, Urayasu 279-0001, Japan
Academic Editor: Marcos G. Frank
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Brain Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2204 KB, uploaded 29 January 2016]   |  
  |   Review Reports


There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep; serotonin; striatum; prefrontal cortex; cohort; marshmallow test sleep; serotonin; striatum; prefrontal cortex; cohort; marshmallow test

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kohyama, J. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 5.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top