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Pedunculopontine Gamma Band Activity and Development

1
Center for Translational Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2
Department of Physical Therapy, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72476, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcos G. Frank
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(4), 546-567; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5040546
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep and Brain Development)
This review highlights the most important discovery in the reticular activating system in the last 10 years, the manifestation of gamma band activity in cells of the reticular activating system (RAS), especially in the pedunculopontine nucleus, which is in charge of waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The identification of different cell groups manifesting P/Q-type Ca2+ channels that control waking vs. those that manifest N-type channels that control REM sleep provides novel avenues for the differential control of waking vs. REM sleep. Recent discoveries on the development of this system can help explain the developmental decrease in REM sleep and the basic rest-activity cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: basic rest-activity cycle; Ca2+ channels; connexin 36; electrical coupling; parafascicular; preconscious awareness; REM sleep; reticular activating system; subcoeruleus; waking basic rest-activity cycle; Ca2+ channels; connexin 36; electrical coupling; parafascicular; preconscious awareness; REM sleep; reticular activating system; subcoeruleus; waking
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Garcia-Rill, E.; Luster, B.; Mahaffey, S.; MacNicol, M.; Hyde, J.R.; D’Onofrio, S.M.; Phillips, C. Pedunculopontine Gamma Band Activity and Development. Brain Sci. 2015, 5, 546-567.

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