Next Article in Journal
Identification and Characterization of GABAergic Projection Neurons from Ventral Hippocampus to Amygdala
Previous Article in Journal
Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study
Open AccessReview

Nonmechanical Roles of Dystrophin and Associated Proteins in Exercise, Neuromuscular Junctions, and Brains

1
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
2
Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1, Ogawa-higashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan
3
Muscular Dystrophy Canada Research Chair, 8812-112 St, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen D. Meriney
Brain Sci. 2015, 5(3), 275-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci5030275
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Brain Function)
Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) is an important structural unit in skeletal muscle that connects the cytoskeleton (f-actin) of a muscle fiber to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several muscular dystrophies, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophies (dystroglycanopathies), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (sarcoglycanopathies), are caused by mutations in the different DGC components. Although many early studies indicated DGC plays a crucial mechanical role in maintaining the structural integrity of skeletal muscle, recent studies identified novel roles of DGC. Beyond a mechanical role, these DGC members play important signaling roles and act as a scaffold for various signaling pathways. For example, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is localized at the muscle membrane by DGC members (dystrophin and syntrophins), plays an important role in the regulation of the blood flow during exercise. DGC also plays important roles at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and in the brain. In this review, we will focus on recently identified roles of DGC particularly in exercise and the brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: dystrophin; dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC); syntrophin; exercise; brain; tadalafil (Cialis®); sildenafil citrate (Viagra®); muscular dystrophy; neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS); two-hit hypothesis (two-hit theory) dystrophin; dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC); syntrophin; exercise; brain; tadalafil (Cialis®); sildenafil citrate (Viagra®); muscular dystrophy; neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS); two-hit hypothesis (two-hit theory)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nichols, B.; Takeda, S.; Yokota, T. Nonmechanical Roles of Dystrophin and Associated Proteins in Exercise, Neuromuscular Junctions, and Brains. Brain Sci. 2015, 5, 275-298.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop