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Article

The Development of Global-Level Categorization: Frequency Tagging EEG Responses

1
Department of Psychology, Heidelberg University, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Charlotte Fresenius University Wiesbaden, 65185 Wiesbaden, Germany
3
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(6), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060541
Submission received: 27 March 2024 / Revised: 17 May 2024 / Accepted: 23 May 2024 / Published: 24 May 2024

Abstract

Adults and infants form abstract categories of visual objects, but little is known about the development of global categorization. This study aims to characterize the development of very fast global categorization (living and non-living objects) and to determine whether and how low-level stimulus characteristics contribute to this response. Frequency tagging was used to characterize the development of global-level categorization in N = 69 infants (4, 7, 11 months), N = 22 children (5–6 years old), and N = 20 young adults. Images were presented in an oddball paradigm, with a category change at every fifth position (AAAABAAAABA…). Strong and significant high-level categorization was observed in all age groups, with reduced responses for phase-scrambled control sequences (R2 = 0.34–0.73). No differences between the categorization of living and non-living targets were observed. These data demonstrate high-level visual categorization as living and non-living from four months to adulthood, providing converging evidence that humans are highly sensitive to broad categorical information from infancy onward.
Keywords: categorization; global; EEG; frequency tagging; Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) categorization; global; EEG; frequency tagging; Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS)

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MDPI and ACS Style

Peykarjou, S.; Hoehl, S.; Pauen, S. The Development of Global-Level Categorization: Frequency Tagging EEG Responses. Brain Sci. 2024, 14, 541. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060541

AMA Style

Peykarjou S, Hoehl S, Pauen S. The Development of Global-Level Categorization: Frequency Tagging EEG Responses. Brain Sciences. 2024; 14(6):541. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peykarjou, Stefanie, Stefanie Hoehl, and Sabina Pauen. 2024. "The Development of Global-Level Categorization: Frequency Tagging EEG Responses" Brain Sciences 14, no. 6: 541. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14060541

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