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Creativity, Eye-Movement Abnormalities, and Aesthetic Appreciation of Magritte’s Paintings
 
 
Article

Predicting Dyslexia in Adolescents from Eye Movements during Free Painting Viewing

1
Orasis Eye Analytics and Rehabilitation, CNRS Spinoff up, 12 rue Lacretelle, 75015 Paris, France
2
LIPADE, French University Institute (IUF), Laboratoire d’Informatique Paris Descartes, University of Paris, 45 Rue Des Saints-Pères, 75006 Paris, France
3
IRIS Lab, Neurophysiology of Binocular Motor Control and Vision, CNRS UAR 2022, University of Paris, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Uwe Ilg
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(8), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081031
Received: 13 April 2022 / Revised: 4 July 2022 / Accepted: 5 July 2022 / Published: 3 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements to Evaluate and Treat Attention Deficits)
It is known that dyslexics present eye movement abnormalities. Previously, we have shown that eye movement abnormalities during reading or during saccade and vergence testing can predict dyslexia successfully. The current study further examines this issue focusing on eye movements during free exploration of paintings; the dataset was provided by a study in our laboratory carried by Ward and Kapoula. Machine learning (ML) classifiers were applied to eye movement features extracted by the software AIDEAL: a velocity threshold analysis reporting amplitude speed and disconjugacy of horizontal saccades. In addition, a new feature was introduced that concerns only the very short periods during which the eyes were moving, one to the left the other to the right; such periods occurred mostly during fixations between saccades; we calculated a global index of the frequency of such disconjugacy segments, of their duration and their amplitude. Such continuous evaluation of disconjugacy throughout the time series of eye movements differs from the disconjugacy feature that describes inequality of the saccade amplitude between the two eyes. The results show that both AIDEAL features, and the Disconjugacy Global Index (DGI) enable successful categorization of dyslexics from non-dyslexics, at least when applying this analysis to the specific paintings used in the present study. We suggest that this high power of predictability arises from both the content of the paintings selected and the physiologic relevance of eye movement features extracted by the AIDEAL and the DGI. View Full-Text
Keywords: saccades; vergence; eye movement; paintings free exploration; machine learning; dyslexia; feature engineering saccades; vergence; eye movement; paintings free exploration; machine learning; dyslexia; feature engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

El Hmimdi, A.E.; Ward, L.M.; Palpanas, T.; Sainte Fare Garnot, V.; Kapoula, Z. Predicting Dyslexia in Adolescents from Eye Movements during Free Painting Viewing. Brain Sci. 2022, 12, 1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081031

AMA Style

El Hmimdi AE, Ward LM, Palpanas T, Sainte Fare Garnot V, Kapoula Z. Predicting Dyslexia in Adolescents from Eye Movements during Free Painting Viewing. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(8):1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081031

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Hmimdi, Alae Eddine, Lindsey M Ward, Themis Palpanas, Vivien Sainte Fare Garnot, and Zoï Kapoula. 2022. "Predicting Dyslexia in Adolescents from Eye Movements during Free Painting Viewing" Brain Sciences 12, no. 8: 1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12081031

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