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Article

Preparing to React: A Behavioral Study on the Interplay between Proactive and Reactive Action Inhibition

1
CNRS—Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LNC, Aix Marseille University, F-13331 Marseille, France
2
The French Aerospace Lab ONERA, Département Traitement de l’Information et Systèmes, 13661 Salon-de-Provence, France
3
INCC—Integrative Neuroscience & Cognition Center UMR 8002, CNRS, Université de Paris, F-75006 Paris, France
4
Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone (UMR 7289), CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, F-13005 Marseille, France
5
Institut de Neuroscience Cognitive et Intégrative d’Aquitaine (UMR5287), CNRS and Université de Bordeaux, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Mirabella
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(6), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060680
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
Motor preparation, based on one’s goals and expectations, allows for prompt reactions to stimulations from the environment. Proactive and reactive inhibitory mechanisms modulate this preparation and interact to allow a flexible control of responses. In this study, we investigate these two control mechanisms with an ad hoc cued Go/NoGo Simon paradigm in a within-subjects design, and by measuring subliminal motor activities through electromyographic recordings. Go cues instructed participants to prepare a response and wait for target onset to execute it (Go target) or inhibit it (NoGo target). Proactive inhibition keeps the prepared response in check, hence preventing false alarms. Preparing the cue-coherent effector in advance speeded up responses, even when it turned out to be the incorrect effector and reactive inhibition was needed to perform the action with the contralateral one. These results suggest that informative cues allow for the investigation of the interaction between proactive and reactive action inhibition. Partial errors’ analysis suggests that their appearance in compatible conflict-free trials depends on cue type and prior preparatory motor activity. Motor preparation plays a key role in determining whether proactive inhibition is needed to flexibly control behavior, and it should be considered when investigating proactive/reactive inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: proactive; reactive; action inhibition; inhibitory control; motor preparation; EMG; motor inhibition; compatibility effect; partial error proactive; reactive; action inhibition; inhibitory control; motor preparation; EMG; motor inhibition; compatibility effect; partial error
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ficarella, S.C.; Desantis, A.; Zénon, A.; Burle, B. Preparing to React: A Behavioral Study on the Interplay between Proactive and Reactive Action Inhibition. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060680

AMA Style

Ficarella SC, Desantis A, Zénon A, Burle B. Preparing to React: A Behavioral Study on the Interplay between Proactive and Reactive Action Inhibition. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(6):680. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060680

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ficarella, Stefania C., Andrea Desantis, Alexandre Zénon, and Boris Burle. 2021. "Preparing to React: A Behavioral Study on the Interplay between Proactive and Reactive Action Inhibition" Brain Sciences 11, no. 6: 680. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060680

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