Next Article in Journal
Childhood Maltreatment and Its Interaction with Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Activity and the Remission Status of Major Depression: Effects on Functionality and Quality of Life
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Open-Label Placebos on State Anxiety and Glucocorticoid Stress Responses
Previous Article in Journal
The Body across the Lifespan: On the Relation between Interoceptive Sensibility and High-Order Body Representations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Music Modulates Cognitive Flexibility? An Investigation of the Benefits of Musical Training on Markers of Cognitive Flexibility
Article

The Effects of Functionally Guided, Connectivity-Based rTMS on Amygdala Activation

1
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine, 200 Trent Drive, Box 3620 DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2
Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, 200 Trent Drive, Box 3620 DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA
3
Durham Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, 508 Fulton St, Durham, NC 27705, USA
4
VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 3022 Croasdaile Drive, Durham, NC 27705, USA
5
Department of Neurology, Duke University School of Medicine, 3116 N Duke Street, Durham, NC 27704, USA
6
Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 308 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simone Grimm
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040494
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 4 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
While repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely used to treat psychiatric disorders, innovations are needed to improve its efficacy. An important limitation is that while psychiatric disorders are associated with fronto-limbic dysregulation, rTMS does not have sufficient depth penetration to modulate affected subcortical structures. Recent advances in task-related functional connectivity provide a means to better link superficial and deeper cortical sources with the possibility of increasing fronto-limbic modulation to induce stronger therapeutic effects. The objective of this pilot study was to test whether task-related, connectivity-based rTMS could modulate amygdala activation through its connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). fMRI was collected to identify a node in the mPFC showing the strongest connectivity with the amygdala, as defined by psychophysiological interaction analysis. To promote Hebbian-like plasticity, and potentially stronger modulation, 5 Hz rTMS was applied while participants viewed frightening video-clips that engaged the fronto-limbic network. Significant increases in both the mPFC and amygdala were found for active rTMS compared to sham, offering promising preliminary evidence that functional connectivity-based targeting may provide a useful approach to treat network dysregulation. Further research is needed to better understand connectivity influences on rTMS effects to leverage this information to improve therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; amygdala; fMRI; functional connectivity repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; amygdala; fMRI; functional connectivity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Beynel, L.; Campbell, E.; Naclerio, M.; Galla, J.T.; Ghosal, A.; Michael, A.M.; Kimbrel, N.A.; Davis, S.W.; Appelbaum, L.G. The Effects of Functionally Guided, Connectivity-Based rTMS on Amygdala Activation. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040494

AMA Style

Beynel L, Campbell E, Naclerio M, Galla JT, Ghosal A, Michael AM, Kimbrel NA, Davis SW, Appelbaum LG. The Effects of Functionally Guided, Connectivity-Based rTMS on Amygdala Activation. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(4):494. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040494

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beynel, Lysianne, Ethan Campbell, Maria Naclerio, Jeffrey T. Galla, Angikar Ghosal, Andrew M. Michael, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Simon W. Davis, and Lawrence G. Appelbaum. 2021. "The Effects of Functionally Guided, Connectivity-Based rTMS on Amygdala Activation" Brain Sciences 11, no. 4: 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040494

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop