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Study Protocol

New Approaches Based on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation and Mental Representation Techniques Targeting Pain in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Two Study Protocols for Two Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Escuela Internacional de Doctorado, Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Alcorcón, Spain
2
Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain
3
Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Alcorcón, Spain
4
Institute for Systems and Robotics-Lisboa, Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
5
Neural and Cognitive Engineering Group, Centre for Automation and Robotics, Spanish National Research Council, 28500 Arganda del Rey, Spain
6
Brain Damage Unit, Beata María Ana Hospital, 28007 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010065
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 26 December 2020 / Accepted: 1 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Neuromodulation on Pain and Motor Learning)
Pain is an under-reported but prevalent symptom in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), impacting patients’ quality of life. Both pain and PD conditions cause cortical excitability reduction and non-invasive brain stimulation. Mental representation techniques are thought to be able to counteract it, also resulting effectively in chronic pain conditions. We aim to conduct two independent studies in order to evaluate the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and mental representation protocol in the management of pain in PD patients during the ON state: (1) tDCS over the Primary Motor Cortex (M1); and (2) Action Observation (AO) and Motor Imagery (MI) training through a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) using Virtual Reality (AO + MI-BCI). Both studies will include 32 subjects in a longitudinal prospective parallel randomized controlled trial design under different blinding conditions. The main outcomes will be score changes in King’s Parkinson’s Disease Pain Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, Temporal Summation, Conditioned Pain Modulation, and Pain Pressure Threshold. Assessment will be performed pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 15 days post-intervention, in both ON and OFF states. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; transcranial direct current stimulation; action observation; motor imagery; pain Parkinson’s Disease; transcranial direct current stimulation; action observation; motor imagery; pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Zamorano, Y.; Fernández-Carnero, J.; Sánchez-Cuesta, F.J.; Arroyo-Ferrer, A.; Vourvopoulos, A.; Figueiredo, P.; Serrano, J.I.; Romero, J.P. New Approaches Based on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation and Mental Representation Techniques Targeting Pain in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Two Study Protocols for Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010065

AMA Style

González-Zamorano Y, Fernández-Carnero J, Sánchez-Cuesta FJ, Arroyo-Ferrer A, Vourvopoulos A, Figueiredo P, Serrano JI, Romero JP. New Approaches Based on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation and Mental Representation Techniques Targeting Pain in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Two Study Protocols for Two Randomized Controlled Trials. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(1):65. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010065

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Zamorano, Yeray, Josué Fernández-Carnero, Francisco J. Sánchez-Cuesta, Aida Arroyo-Ferrer, Athanasios Vourvopoulos, Patricia Figueiredo, José I. Serrano, and Juan P. Romero 2021. "New Approaches Based on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation and Mental Representation Techniques Targeting Pain in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Two Study Protocols for Two Randomized Controlled Trials" Brain Sciences 11, no. 1: 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010065

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