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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1570;

Ginger: Panacea or Consumer’s Hype?

REQUIMTE/LAQV—Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering)
PDF [430 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]


Ginger in its many forms, from juices of the fresh rhizome, to ginger powder and ginger essential oil, is growing in popularity for claimed universal health benefits. Nevertheless, and contrarily to the common notion of the public, ginger is not devoid of side effects, especially interactions with other drugs, and many of the claimed benefits remain to be substantiated. This work presents a comprehensive revision of the current state of the art on ginger pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, interaction with active pharmaceutical ingredients, raising awareness of the risks of uncontrolled ginger consumption. A second section of the work described the verified actions of various extracts of ginger, or of their main active ingredients, gingerols, based mainly on data obtained from controlled clinical trials. Finally, the last section is devoted to innovative technological solutions to improve the bioavailability of gingerols and ginger extracts that are expected to ultimately lead to the development of more consumer-compliant products. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; medication interactions; clinical trials; encapsulation; nano-carriers bioavailability; medication interactions; clinical trials; encapsulation; nano-carriers

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Santos Braga, S. Ginger: Panacea or Consumer’s Hype? Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1570.

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