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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1565;

Low-Cost Rapid Fabrication of Conformal Liquid-Metal Patterns

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Center of Excellence, Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Smart Village, P.O. Box 12577, Egypt
Bionano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Liquid Metals)
PDF [2087 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]


Patterned conformal conductive structures are used to realize flexible electronics for applications such as electronic skin, communication devices, and sensors. Thus, there is a demand for low-cost rapid fabrication techniques for flexible and stretchable conductors. Spray-coating of liquid metals is a prototyping method that is compatible with elastic substrates. In this work, UV-curable and polyimide masks were used to pattern sprayed liquid metal (LM). The effect of the spraying parameters on the thickness and conductivity of the LM was characterized. A minimum LM linewidth of 48 µm was achieved, along with a minimum gap width of 34 µm. A LM patch antenna and transmission line, which can potentially be used for communication systems, were demonstrated using this fabrication process.
Keywords: prototyping; flexible electronics; conformal devices prototyping; flexible electronics; conformal devices

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Elassy, K.S.; Akau, T.K.; Shiroma, W.A.; Seo, S.; Ohta, A.T. Low-Cost Rapid Fabrication of Conformal Liquid-Metal Patterns. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1565.

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