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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081539

Attention-Based LSTM Algorithm for Audio Replay Detection in Noisy Environments

Lab of Intelligent Information Processing, Army Engineering University, Nanjing 210007, China
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Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biometrics with Deep Learning)
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Abstract

Even though audio replay detection has improved in recent years, its performance is known to severely deteriorate with the existence of strong background noises. Given the fact that different frames of an utterance have different impacts on the performance of spoofing detection, this paper introduces attention-based long short-term memory (LSTM) to extract representative frames for spoofing detection in noisy environments. With this attention mechanism, the specific and representative frame-level features will be automatically selected by adjusting their weights in the framework of attention-based LSTM. The experiments, conducted using the ASVspoof 2017 dataset version 2.0, show that the equal error rate (EER) of the proposed approach was about 13% lower than the constant Q cepstral coefficients-Gaussian mixture model (CQCC-GMM) baseline in noisy environments with four different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm also improved the performance of traditional LSTM on audio replay detection systems in noisy environments. Experiments using bagging with different frame lengths were also conducted to further improve the proposed approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: audio replay attack; noise robustness; attention mechanism; long short-term memory audio replay attack; noise robustness; attention mechanism; long short-term memory
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, J.; Zhang, X.; Sun, M.; Zou, X.; Zheng, C. Attention-Based LSTM Algorithm for Audio Replay Detection in Noisy Environments. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1539.

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